ISLE OF MAN D-DAY issues 2019

About D-Day 75
To mark the 75th anniversary of D-Day, the Isle of Man Post Office is privileged to issue a new set of stamps, a dedicated collection honouring all the Manx men and women involved in the historic landings. Our set is a special 'stamp on stamp' design and includes the artwork from our 1994 collection.
Codenamed Operation Overlord, the battle began on 6th June 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France's Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history the Normandy beach landings.
This stamp-on-stamp presentation, derived from our 50th Anniversary of D Day 1994 commemorative issue depicts the most prominent military leaders of the Allied Forces who formulated plans which marked the start of a long and costly campaign to liberate north-west Europe from German occupation.

The Commanders featured on the stamps are:
General Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF).
Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Tedder RAF, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander.
Lt-Gen Omar Bradley, US Army, Commander 1st US Army.
General Sir Bernard Montgomery, British Army, Commander 21st Army Group.
Major General Walter Bedell Smith, US Army, Chief of Staff.
Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey, Royal Navy, Commander Allied Naval Expeditionary Force.
Air Chief Marshall Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Royal Air Force, Commander in Chief, Allied Expeditionary Air Force and also in command of the landing phase for Operation Overlord.
Lt-Gen Sir Miles Dempsey, Commander 2nd British Army.

The ships depict which are also depicted on 1994 issues, on the 1st stamp are the:
The left stamp of the se-tenant stamp shows the BEN-MY-CHREE : viewtopic.php?f=2&t=7611
Also, are depict some landing craft in the foreground which are not identified.
The right stamp shows from the top the VICTORIA: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10494
LADY OF MAN: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=6022
HMS WARSPITE, shown on the bottom in the right corner: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=9921
The landing crafts have not been identified.
The EU stamp shows also on the right stamp landing craft and cargo vessels which have not been identified.

Isle of Man 2019 1st and EU sg?, scott?

CORNELIS DREBBEL first submarine

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CORNELIS DREBBEL first submarine

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Apr 11, 2010 8:48 pm

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2008 ¬ÒßÔ« í¿ßßáÒ.jpg
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2013 drebbel.jpg
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In 2010 The Netherlands issued a set of stamps for the 100 anniversary of the “Octrooi Wet” (patent act), one of this stamps is interesting for ship stamp collectors, the stamp depict the first submarine built in the world by the Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel. The submarine did not fall in the timeframe of the patent act.
I believe also the image of the submarine on the stamp is made after the replica built for the BBC series ‘Building the Impossible’ ... marine.htm

In 1578 the first serious discussion of a craft designed to be navigated underwater appeared by the British mathematician and writer on naval subjects, William Bourne.

He proposed a complete enclosed boat that could be submerged and rowed underwater. It did have a wooden frame covered with waterproof leather, but he never constructed the boat.

Cornelis Drebbel a Dutch inventor born in Alkmaar, Netherlands in 1572, died in London in 1633, was the first who built a navigable submarine.
He went early 1605 from the Netherlands to Great Britain.
While working for the British King in 1820 and using the design of William Bourne he manufactured a steerable submarine, but how he exactly did look is unknown, some sources give that he used two rowboats upside down joined together, other give that he used a wooden frame covered with leather.
Between 1620 and 1624 Drebbel built and testes two other larger submarines.
The submarines were powered by rowers, the holes in the hull of the submarine through which the oars protruding were sealed by flexible leather seals.

Between 1620 and 1624 he tested and successfully manoeuvred his submarines at a depth of 4 to 5 meters beneath the surface on his trials at the River Thames, U.K.
Air tubes were held above the surface by floats, she could stay beneath the surface for three hours. Wikipedia gives that she could travel from Westminster to Greenwich and back, the largest submarine was powered by 6 oars and could carry 16 passengers. (how she could navigated below the surface from Westminster to Greenwich is nowhere given, I doubt that this voyage ever took place.)
It is reported that King James I made a test dive on her.

It is also said that Drebbel developed a chemical which purified the air and allowed the crew to stay submerged for extended periods.

The submarine could not attract enough enthusiasm from the British Admiralty and the boots were never by them used. (in Dutch has the following on the submarine)

Drebbel most resounding invention was his submarine. It is also however the invention which has been wrapped most in mysteries.
When exactly the test dive took place is unknown. It must be 1620 or 1621. According Abraham Kuffler (a son in law of Drebbel) the boat could carry 16 passengers and 8 rowers.
During a raging storm the submarine made her dive and after 24 hours she submerged again, and after the air had been refreshed the voyage was continued in a depth of 50 vadem (I never did know that the Thames was so deep?).
By using a compass the course was set to navigate the boat.
But the most strange thing was that in the part the rowers were seated there was no bottom in the boat; it must therefore be a moving diving bell.
According to an other version the submarine could carry 9 men, nevertheless still a respectable number.
Further given by one Cornelis van de Woude in 1645 that the submarine had made a voyage under water from Westminster to Greenwich, and that there was so much light in the submarine that one could read without the use of a candle.
Constantijn Huygens brings in his autobiography (1631) the matter to what more reasonable proportion. He writes she was a small boat which dived under the eyes of thousands of spectators in London.

Netherland 2010 0.44 Euro sg?, scott?
Guinea-Bissau 2008 350 FCFA sg?, scott?
Solomon Island 2013 $35 sgMS?, scott?

Source: ... rebbel.htm Wikipedia info received from Erhard Jung. ... elis.shtml ... istory.htm
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