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ANDERS SPARRMANN and Tahitian canoes

On this stamp of Sweden is depict a portrait of the Swedish naturalist Anders Sparrmann who made a voyage with James Cook during his second voyage in 1772. The background shows a part of a painting made by William Hodges of Matavai Bay, Tahiti and the island from the north-west, with Mount Orofena in the distance, together with Point Venus and One-Tree Hill. The scene is diffused with the light from the rising sun on the left of the painting. Various Tahitian boats can be seen in the foreground; a small outrigger sailing canoe on the far left, the coastal craft in the centre with two figures on board, and the war canoe on the far right with its dominant stern. (the war canoe is not visible on the stamp.)
Read more at ... TGlOS4S.99

Wikipedia gives on Sparrmann:
Anders Sparrman (27 February 1748, Tensta, Uppland – 9 August 1820) was a Swedish naturalist, abolitionist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Sparrman was the son of a clergyman. At the age of nine he enrolled at Uppsala University, beginning medical studies at fourteen and becoming one of the outstanding pupils of Linnaeus. In 1765 he went on a voyage to China as ship's doctor, returning two years later and describing the animals and plants he had encountered. On this voyage he met Carl Gustaf Ekeberg.
He sailed for the Cape of Good Hope in January 1772 to take up a post as a tutor. When James Cook arrived there later in the year at the start of his second voyage, Sparrman was taken on as assistant naturalist to Johann and Georg Forster. After the voyage he returned to Cape Town in July 1775 and practiced medicine, earning enough to finance a journey into the interior. He was guided by Daniel Ferdinand Immelman, the young frontiersman who had previously guided the Swedish botanist Carl Peter Thunberg. Daniel and Sparrman reached the Great Fish River and returned in April 1776. In 1776 Sparrman returned to Sweden, where he had been awarded an honorary doctorate in his absence. He was also elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1777. He was appointed keeper of the natural historical collections of the Academy of Sciences in 1780, Professor of natural history and pharmacology in 1781 and assessor of the Collegium Medicum in 1790. In 1787 he took part in an expedition to West Africa, but this was not successful.
Sparrman published several works, the best known of which is his account of his travels in South Africa and with Cook, published in English as A voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, towards the Antarctic polar circle, and round the world: But chiefly into the country of the Hottentots and Caffres, from the year 1772 to 1776 (1789). He also published a Catalogue of the Museum Carlsonianum (1786–89), in which he described many of the specimens he had collected in South Africa and the South Pacific, some of which were new to science. He published an Ornithology of Sweden in 1806.
The asteroid 16646 Sparrman bears his name. The Swedish novelist Per Wästberg has written a biographical novel about Sparrman which was published in English in 2010, under the title as The Journey of Anders Sparrman. Anders Erikson Sparrman is denoted by the author abbreviation Sparrm. when citing a botanical name.

Sweden 1973 1k sg 746, scott 1006.


This stamp issued by Finland in 1946 for the 250th Anniversary of the Pilotage Authority shows us the old light tower of Uto built in 1753, on the stamp is also a sailing vessel which is not identified. The rigging looks like a schoonerbarque?

Uto is a small island in the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, Utö is the southernmost year-round inhabited island in Finland. Uto lighthouse was built upon this small island on the eastern side of the Uto inlet, which is the entrance of the channel that leads through and amongst the islands to Abo (Turku).

She was the oldest of the Finnish lighthouses and built in 1753 on Uto, also known as the main gateway to the Archipelago Sea. The Uto lighthouse was destroyed in the War of Finland 1808-1809, but was rebuilt in 1814. Subsequently, its tower has been remodelled several times.

The old tower was conical built, 30 meter high. The tower had two lights, an oil-light in the lantern on top of the tower and a coal fire outside the tower in an iron basket attached to the tower via a wooden type frame.

Source: Sailing directions for the Gulf of Finland, Navicula and internet
Finland 1946 8.00M sg 420, scott252.


For the 100th anniversary of the publication of the epic poem Kalevala, Finland issued three stamps in 1935 which shows on the 2,00 M stamp a type of Viking ship in which the hero of the epos Väinämöinen escaped with the “sampo”, made by the blacksmith Ilmarinen.
When the Goddess Louhi finds out that the “sampo” was stolen, she changed in an eagle, took her warriors on her back and landed on the boat of Väinämöinen (as seen on stamp), where after a battle started in which the boat sank, which took with her the “sampo”.
Plenty more on this poem you can find on the internet,

Encyclopaedia Britannica gives:
Kalevala, Finnish national epic compiled from old Finnish ballads, lyrical songs, and incantations that were a part of Finnish oral tradition.
The Kalevala was compiled by Elias Lönnrot, who published the folk material in two editions (32 cantos, 1835; enlarged into 50 cantos, 1849). Kalevala, the dwelling place of the poem’s chief characters, is a poetic name for Finland, meaning “land of heroes.” The leader of the “sons of Kaleva” is the old and wise Väinämöinen, a powerful seer with supernatural origins, who is a master of the kantele, the Finnish harplike stringed instrument. Other characters include the skilled smith Ilmarinen, one of those who forged the “lids of heaven” when the world was created; Lemminkäinen, the carefree adventurer-warrior and charmer of women; Louhi, the female ruler of Pohjola, a powerful land in the north; and the tragic hero Kullervo, who is forced by fate to be a slave from childhood.
Among the main dramas of the poem are the creation of the world and the adventurous journeys of Väinämöinen, Ilmarinen, and Lemminkäinen to Pohjola to woo the beautiful daughter of Louhi, during which the miraculous sampo, a mill that produces salt, meal, and gold and is a talisman of happiness and prosperity, is forged and recovered for the people of Kalevala. Although the Kalevala depicts the conditions and ideas of the pre-Christian period, the last canto seems to predict the decline of paganism: the maid Marjatta gives birth to a son who is baptized king of Karelia, and the pagan Väinämöinen makes way for him, departing from Finland without his kantele and songs.
The Kalevala is written in unrhymed octosyllabic trochees and dactyls (the Kalevala metre) and its style is characterized by alliteration, parallelism, and repetition. Besides fostering the Finnish national spirit, the poem has been translated into at least 20 languages; it has inspired many outstanding works of art, e.g., the paintings of Akseli Gallen-Kallela and the musical compositions of Jean Sibelius. The epic style and metre of the poem The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow also reflect the influence of the Kalevala.

Finland 1935 2.00M sg 307, scott 208. The painting shows the landing of Louhi on the boat, painting is made by Aksell Gallen Kallela.

Haukur 1973

Haukur was built in Reykjavík in 1973, thus being a youngster for a wooden boat. In the beginning she was designed as a fishing boat but due to the shipbuilder’s respect and enthusiasm for old sail boats the hull shape was rather unusual and in fact with a resemblance to the old shark and fishing schooners that were common around Iceland in the 19th century. When North Sailing bought the boat in 1996 it was soon clear that the boat would be a great sailing vessel and after serving 5 summers as an ordinary whale watching vessel the boat was transformed to a two mast schooner in the shipyard of Húsavík.

Phoenix 1929

The Phoenix is a ship built by Hjorne & Jakobsen at Frederikshavn, Denmark in 1929, originally as an Evangelical Mission Schooner.
Length: 112ft Beam21.9ft Draught 8.5ft. Propulsion 12 sails, 235 h.p. Volvo. Crew of 10

Missionary and cargo ship
Twenty years later she retired from missionary work and carried cargo until her engine room was damaged by fire. In 1974 she was bought by new owners who converted her into a Brigantine before being purchased by Square Sail in 1988. A first aid over-haul enabled her to sail back to the UK where she underwent a complete refit.
Appearances in films
Caravel Santa Maria
During 1991 she was converted to the 15th century Caravel Santa Maria for Ridley Scott's film 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The ship was known as Santa Maria until, in 1996, due to increasing demand for period square-riggers, she was converted into a 2 masted Brig and reverted to her original name Phoenix of Dell Quay.
Hornblower Series 3
Phoenix of Dell Quay was used as the ship Retribution in the Hornblower Series 3.


Spirit of New Zealand 1986

The tall ship Spirit of New Zealand is a steel-hulled, three-masted barquentine from Auckland, New Zealand. It was purpose-built by the Spirit of Adventure Trust in 1986 for youth development. It is 42.5 m in total length and carries a maximum of 40 trainees and 13 crew on overnight voyages. The ship's home port is Auckland, and it spends most of its time sailing around the Hauraki Gulf. During the summer season, it often sails to the Marlborough Sounds and Nelson, at the top of the South Island.
The spirit of the project was derived from the sail training operations of the schooners "Sir Winston Churchill" and "Malcolm Miller" which were built for the organisation formerly known as the Sail Training Association ( STA) ... ur-history
The ship is used for a year-round programme of youth development, consisting primarily of 10-day individual voyages for 15- to 19-year-olds and 5-day Spirit Trophy voyages for teams of 10 Year 10 students. Once a year an Inspiration voyage for trainees with physical disabilities is run, as well as board of trustees and Navy training voyages. In addition, adult day, weekend and coastal voyages are offered to paying members of the public. The ship is usually in dry-dock for refit in November and does not sail on Christmas Day.
The Spirit of New Zealand is a barquentine-rigged three-masted steel hull 33.3 m (109 ft) long, with an overall length of 45.2 m (148 ft) including the bowsprit, and a maximum width of 9.1 m (29.9 ft). She has a draft of about 4 m (13 ft) and a displacement of 286 tons. Under power, the Spirit of New Zealand can reach a top speed of 10 knots, and 14 knots under sail. A new engine installed in late 2010 is expected to increase the vessel's maximum speed.
The three steel masts are 28.7, 31.3, and 28.0 metres high and carry 14 sails totalling 724.3m² (7,965 ft²). There are 3 jibs and 4 square sails on the foremast. The main and mizzen masts are gaff rigged, and both can carry a gaff-topsail. In addition, there are 3 staysails on the main mast.
The hull is painted black with the ship's name and the Trust's website painted in white at the bow and across the stern. In addition, a large silver fern is painted on either side of the bow beneath the name. A stainless steel rubbing strake runs the length of the vessel and circular port holes are visible above the waterline. A wooden rail runs around the edge of the entire deck.
The standard crew of the Spirit of New Zealand has varied during her lifetime, but in 2010 consisted of 1 master, 3 mates, 1 cook, 1 engineer, 2 cadets, 3 volunteer watch assistants, 2 leading hands and 40 trainees. For day sail voyages, the ship is registered to carry significantly more passengers. The trainees are normally split 20 male and 20 female, and sleep in separate accommodation. A change to the male accommodation was made so that 6 of the bunks could be separated from the remainder, allowing voyages to sail with 26 females and 14 males. This change was made in response to frequently higher female applicants than male applicants.

Ariel 1865

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Ariel 1865

Postby john sefton » Tue Jan 18, 2011 8:47 pm

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The Ariel was No 162 at Robert Steele & Co's yard, Greenock, and was launched on 29 June 1865, having been ordered by Shaw, Lowther & Maxton of London. Her register dimensions were 197.4ft x 33.9ft x 21.0ft with a tonnage of 852.87.
The Ariel had her lower masts made up of three iron plates 1/2in thick without internal angle stiffeners; the fore and main were 30in diameter and the mizen was 28in diameter. The bowsprit was 30in diameter made up with three plates but stiffened inside with 4in X 3in X 7/16 in angles. Presumably a boy or man crawled inside as a 'holder‑upper' as the plates were being riveted together.
Later in her life, Titania had two deckhouses erected on her main deck to increase cargo capacity by taking the accommodation out of the 'tween decks; this is authenticated by an oil painting and by photographs. Perhaps the same thing was done to Ariel before she was lost in 1872. There is a large painting in the National Maritime Museum supposedly of her with two big deckhouses, but also with a long poop, a topgallant forecastle, double channels, topgallant rail, and headsails cut in the fashion of twenty years later. The figures painted about the decks are also too small for a tea clipper and suggest a vessel of 1500 tons with an American or Canadian pedigree. The Ariel's original sail area of 25,451 sq ft, excluding skysail and stunsails, was reduced later in her life to 23,471 sq ft.
Her only outward passage under 100 days was in 1866‑67 on her second voyage, but this was the fastest ever made out against the monsoon:
Left Gravesend 14 October
Left Start Point 15 October
Dropped pilot (noon) 17 October
Crossed the Line in 25°30'W 3 November
Passed meridian of the Cape in 44°S 14 November
Passed Island of Savoby 13 December
Passed through Gillolo Passage 23 December
Passed Pelew Islands and Bashees 3 January
Picked up pilot (9.0 am) 5 January
Anchored at Hong Kong (11.0 pm) 5 January
The time was 83 days, or 79 days 21 hours, pilot to pilot. Commenting on the public reaction to this passage, Captain John Keay wrote in his journal: 'Our 80 days (79 days 21 hours) from pilot to pilot & 83 from Gravesend to Hong Kong made quite a sensation in Hong Kong & at home when telegram reached, 'twas scarce believed. So Ariel up to present date has exceeded every other sailing ship, specially is extraordinary in NE monsoon.'
Cairngorm's fast run of 77 days at sea out to Hong Kong has already been mentioned, but Ariel's was the fastest allowing for an unfavourable monsoon and for making the passage at one attempt. Two other fast times were made by American ships in the 1850s. Eagle Wing took 83 days 12 hours in 1855, pilot to pilot, between leaving the Downs on 17 April and arriving at Hong Kong on 10 July. The previous year the Comet had taken 83 days 21 hours between her pilots from Liverpool to Hong Kong, 17 June to 7 September or 86 days 16 hours anchor to anchor. Both were made with the help of the monsoon.
Ariel early gained fame by being the first ship in 1866 to reach the Downs. She had loaded 1,230,900lbs of tea at Foochow at £5 per ton on 340 tons of iron kentledge and shingle ballast. Her bills of lading, like those of the other early starters, were endorsed for 'l0s per ton extra if first sailing vessel in dock with new teas from Foochow'. But she was unlucky with her tugs. She finished loading first and left at 5.0 pm on 28 May behind the paddler Island Queen. The tug was too weak to take her across the bar next day and she had to wait 24 hours during which Fiery Cross passed her, so that she eventually got across closely followed by Serica and Taeping, all three making sail at about 10.30 am. Taitsing left next day.
Fiery Cross made the best time to Anjer by one day and all five ships made big runs across the Indian Ocean, Ariel on one occasion logging 330 miles and Fiery Cross 328. The positions of the ships altered slightly, with Taitsing gradually catching up. She passed Flores on 1 September, the other four having passed it on 29 August. Ariel and Taeping ran up Channel logging 14 knots for most of 5 September. Ariel signalled her number off Deal at 8.0 am on 6 September, 98 days 22 hours from dropping her pilot. Taeping was off Deal 10 minutes later, and Serica not until noon. Fiery Cross arrived about 36 hours later. With her better tug Tae ping docked the same day at 9.47 am, Ariel at 10.15 pm, and Serica at 11.30 pm, just before the dock gates closed. The consignees must have been very loth to award the premium to either ship because with so much tea arriving at the same time on the market, prices would be sure to fall and a loss would be sustained. The premium was in future abandoned, after being divided on this occasion between Ariel and Taeping.
The following year Ariel obtained 10s per ton more freight than any other ship, and though not sailing with the first flight passed every ship ahead of her except Taeping and Fiery Cross. Her third passage was her fastest since she was only 95 days to 'off Falmouth'.
A résumé of her first four outward passages is as follows:
1865, Liverpool to Hong Kong, 4 September to 15 December, 102 days.
1866‑67, Gravesend to Hong Kong, 14 October to 5 January, 83 days (79 days 21 hours pilot to pilot).
1867‑68, London to Shanghai, 19 October to 5 February, 109 days.
1868‑69, London to Shanghai, 22 September to 8 January, 106 days.
The first three were made under Keay, the fourth under Courtenay.
Basil Lubbock copied Captain Keay's private journal and these hand‑written copies are now in the National Maritime Museum. They provide some informative background data on the ship's fittings and are summarized here:
There was so much brasswork that it took three to four men twelve hours to clean and oil it all round outside and inside rails, gun mountings, bucket straps, &c; there were eight side winches ; eight capstan bars of teak were fitted in rack on after side of deckhouse; pig house was stowed under longboat; hen coops kept under monkey poop but could be moved out for cleaning; there was a sheep pen, but position not stated; steering gear stated to have screw and guide rods which implies the standard wheel box of the period; bower anchors kept abaft windlass on main deck and brought on to forecastle when approaching land and painted red [this may have been done to distribute weights further aft]; sidelight screens placed in mizen rigging on three foremost shrouds; prior to entering port, all fancy gratings, buckets and racks, brass ventilator, standard of compass, headboards, boom boards, guns &c got on deck, and were put away when ship got to sea; spare spars stowed along waterways, three each side, and one each side of quarter hatch; 'lower ends of carved ornaments on house too fragile, shortened them a little' [perhaps this refers to acanthus leaves on pilasters]; manger situated at fore part of main hatch [presumably for animals]; temporary breakwater built across deck from side to side to protect wheel, binnacle, skylight and companionway when running the Easting down, as there was a lot of water on deck.
The only reference to colours of paint is that on the second passage the fore‑ and mainmasts were painted a stone colour as “owners had put on board different paint from first voyage”; also that waterways were painted cream.
As regards the setting of flying kites, all those pictured by the Illustrated London News were regularly set at different times and in addition there were: a main skysail, main sky staysail, jib topsail, save‑all to spanker, main middle staysail, watersail below ringtail, and a mizen staysail laced to the outside of a lower stunsail; the Jamie Green was cut from No 4 canvas similar to a main topgallant stunsail but with 3ft more hoist; the dews of the upper topsails were sometimes 'hove out and laced to head of lower topsails'; two spare topmast stunsail booms were lashed across fore hatch making a total length of 65ft as a passaree boom to haul out the sheet of the lower stunsails.
Captain Keay left the ship in the autumn of 1868 to take command of the company's new clipper Oberon and his first mate, Courtenay, took command. In 1870 Ariel was dismasted south of Yokohama on an intermediate passage. After refitting, Captain Courtenay left Yokohama for New York on 1 September, and going across the Pacific and by way of Cape Horn, he passed Diego Ramirez on 22 November and reached New York on 15 January 1871, 136 days out. In 1872 she left London for Sydney on 31 January and was never heard of again. It is usually assumed that she was fatally pooped when running her Easting down.

The Tea Clippers by David R MacGregor

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Re: Ariel 1865

Postby Anatol » Sun Feb 08, 2015 9:49 am

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Аriel (Clipper)1865
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Re: Ariel 1865

Postby aukepalmhof » Mon Jan 16, 2017 8:53 pm

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Re: Ariel 1865

Postby Anatol » Wed Nov 08, 2017 5:33 pm

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