PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689


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Postby aukepalmhof » Fri May 20, 2011 2:31 am

HMS BULWARK         NC      xx.jpg
Click image to view full size
The tug on the starboard side of the BULWARK is one of the Adept class Royal Navy tugs.

Class and type: Adept-class tractor tug
Displacement: 450 tons
Length: 39 m
Beam: 10 m
Propulsion: 2 diesels, 2 shafts, 2,640 bhp
Speed: 12.5 knots
Complement: 10
Bollard Pull 29.63 tons
Range 1500 miles @ 10 knots.

Class built by R Dunston (Hessle) Ltd of Hessle, Yorkshire, England between 1980 and 1986

The tugs were named:
ADEPT A224 Completed 1980
BUSTLER A225 Completed 1981
CAPABLE A226 Completed 1981
CAREFUL A227 Completed 1982
DEXTEROUS A231 Completed 1986
FAITHFUL A228 Completed 1985
FORCEFUL A221 Completed 1985
NIMBLE A222 Completed 1985
POWERFUL A223 Completed 1985

CAPABLE is stationed at Gibraltar principally for movement of nuclear-powered submarines.
BUSTLER & POWERFUL are stationed at Portsmouth.
ADEPT, CAREFUL, FAITHFUL & FORCEFUL are stationed at Devonport.
NIMBLE & DEXTEROUS are stationed at Faslane, Scotland.

These are the principal harbour tugs in naval service. Some are to undergo a service life extension programme.

If I were to hazard a guess I would say that the tug alongside HMS BULWARK was one of the Devonport tugs.

In December 2007 the MOD signed a contract with Serco Denholm to take over the running of the Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service (RMAS) for 15 years. Serco Denholm had been manning the vessels for a number of years before the 2007 contract. In March 2008 the RMAS was disbanded. Following the take over by Serco Denholm all the former RMAS vessels, with the exception of CAPABLE in Gibraltar, have had the letters SD added to the front of their names so that ADEPT became SD ADEPT and so on. The funnel colours remained the same – buff with black top – but the pennant numbers were removed from the sides of the vessels. Over the last 2 – 3 years the funnel colours have gradually been changed to red with a black top and the Serco Denholm house flag logo added later on.

On 12 May 2010 SD Dexterous was in company with another Serco tug involved in warship escort duties in the Gareloch. As the vessel approached Rhu Narrows, the fire alarm sounded and the chief engineer discovered a fire in the vicinity of the port main engine. The engine room was closed down as the tugmaster advised the pilot on the warship and shore authorities of the situation. Soon afterwards, the vessel went to anchor, the engines were shut down and CO2 was released into the engine room. The crew were safely evacuated and boundary cooling was established by other Serco vessels. Some hours later, the fire was confirmed to be extinguished and SD Dexterous was towed to a nearby berth.

Progressive chafing of one of the port main engine's fuel injector leak-off pipes had caused the pipe to fail. Diesel fuel then discharged onto the hot engine, where it ignited.

SD DEXTEROUS returned to service later in the year.

Sources: Various websites. British Warships & Auxiliaries (various years) by Steve Bush. Brian Hargreaves. ... terous.cfm

Images of SD DEXTEROUS fire - ... -fire.html

St Thomas & Prince 2009 Db30000 sg?, scott?

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