SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year.

The editor of Log book will retire this coming August and, unless a new one comes forward, the society will close.
With this in mind, we are not taking in any new members.
This is an unfortunate situation but seemingly unavoidable.
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GALLEON

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GALLEON

Postby aukepalmhof » Sat Dec 03, 2011 9:25 am

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A galleon was a large, multi-decked sailing ship used primarily by European states from the 16th to 18th centuries. Whether used for war or commerce, they were generally armed with the demi-culverin type of cannon.
The term "galleon" had been in use long before the ship type that it now technically refers to came into existence. Just like the term "frigate", the term "galleon" was originally applied to certain types of war galleys in the Middle Ages. The Annali Genovesi mentions galleons of 80, 64 and 60 oars used for speed in battle and on missions of exploration, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is very likely that the galleons and galliots mentioned in the accounts of the crusades were, in fact, the same vessels. Later, when the term started to be applied to sail only vessels, it simply meant, like the term "man of war", a powerfully fitted out war vessel. Thus, some of the early ocean going "galleons" were designated galleons because of their use and not because of their design.
The galleon was an ocean going ship type which evolved from the carrack in the second half of 16th century. A lowering of the forecastle and elongation of the hull gave galleons an unprecedented level of stability in the water, and reduced wind resistance at the front, leading to a faster, more maneuverable vessel. The galleon differed from the older types primarily by being longer, lower and narrower, with a square tuck stern instead of a round tuck, and by having a snout or head projecting forward from the bows below the level of the forecastle. In Portugal at least, carracks were usually very large ships for their time (often over 1000 tons), while galleons were mostly under 500 tons, although the Manila galleons were to reach up to 2000 tons. With the introduction of the galleon in Portuguese India Armadas over the course of the late 1520s and the 1530s, carracks gradually began to be less armed and became almost exclusively cargo ships (which is why the Portuguese Carracks were pushed to such large sizes), leaving any fighting to be done to the galleons. One of the largest and most famous of Portuguese galleons was the SAO JOAO BAPTISTA (nicknamed Botafogo, 'spitfire'), a 1,000-ton galleon built in 1534, said to have carried 366 guns. Carracks also tended to be lightly armed and used for transporting cargo in all the fleets of other Western European states, while galleons were purpose-built warships, and were stronger, more heavily armed, and also cheaper to build (5 galleons could cost around the same as 3 carracks) and were therefore a much better investment for use as warships or transports. There are nationalist disputes about its origins and development, but each Atlantic sea power built types suited to their needs, while constantly learning from their rivals. It was the Spanish captain and naval architect, Álvaro de Bazán, who designed the definitive model of the galleon in the 1550s.
The galleon was powered entirely by wind, using sails carried on three or four masts, with a lateen sail continuing to be used on the last (usually third and fourth) masts. They were used in both military and trade applications, most famously in the Spanish treasure fleet, and the Manila Galleons. They helped fuel the new world exploration by providing a means for transport of goods between the new world and the Iberian peninsula. They were the driving force behind much 15th and 16th century exploration. In fact, galleons were so versatile that a single vessel may have been refitted for wartime and peacetime roles several times during its lifespan. The galleon was the prototype of all square rigged ships with three or more masts for over two and a half centuries, including the later full rigged ship.
The principal warships of the opposing English and Spanish fleets in the 1588 confrontation of the Spanish Armada were galleons, with the modified English "race built" galleons developed by John Hawkins proving decisive, while the capacious Spanish galleons, designed primarily as transports, showed great endurance in the battles and in the great storms on the voyage home; most survived the ordeal.
Galleons were constructed from oak (for the keel), pine (for the masts) and various hardwoods for hull and decking. Hulls were usually carvel-built. The expenses involved in galleon construction were enormous. Hundreds of expert tradesmen (including carpenters, pitch-melters, blacksmiths, coopers, shipwrights, etc.) worked day and night for months before a galleon was seaworthy. To cover the expense, galleons were often funded by groups of wealthy businessmen who pooled resources for a new ship. Therefore, most galleons were originally consigned for trade, although those captured by rival states were usually put into military service.
The most common gun used aboard a galleon was the demi-culverin, although gun sizes up to demi-cannon were possible.
Because of the long periods often spent at sea and poor conditions on board, many of the crew sometimes perished during the voyage; therefore advanced rigging systems were developed so that the vessel could be sailed home by an active sailing crew a fraction of the size aboard at departure.
The most distinguishing features of the galleon include the long beak, the lateen-rigged mizzenmasts, and the square gallery at the stern off the captain's cabin. In larger galleons, a fourth mast was added, usually a lateen-rigged mizzen, called the bonaventure mizzen.
The galleon continued to be used into the 18th century, by which time purpose-built vessels such as the fluyt, the brig and the full rigged ship, both as a trading vessel and ship of the line, rendered it obsolete for trade and warfare respectively.
The oldest known scale drawings in England are in a manuscript called "Fragments of Ancient Shipwrightry" made in about 1586 by Mathew Baker, a master-shipwright. This manuscript, held at the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, provides an authentic reference for the size and shape of typical English galleons built during this period. Based on these plans, the Science Museum, London has built a 1:48 scale model ship that is an exemplar of galleons of this era.
Cuba 1972 4c sg1981
Cyprus 2011 0.22 Euro sg?, scott?
Ghana 1957 1s3d sg183, scott?
Grenada Grenadines 1995 $5 sgMS2087, scott1791.
Macao 1993 4.50p sg823, scott714.
Portugal 1995 sg?, scott?
Philippines 1984 6p sg1852, scott?
Solomon Islands 2012 $9 sg?, scott?
Togo 1968 5f and 30f sg588 and 591 scott 641 and 644 (the vessel in the background is a Viking longboat.)
Guinea 2012 750f sg?, scott2069a.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galleon
Last edited by aukepalmhof on Tue Jan 01, 2019 7:19 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: GALLEON

Postby aukepalmhof » Fri May 08, 2015 9:27 pm

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Mexico 1998 $7.40 sg?, scott?
Laos 1990 100k sg1191, scott1014.
Cambodia 1990 80c sg1115, scott1081.
St Thomas & Prince 1979 1Dh sg?, scott535.
Macao 1990 50A/6.5ptc, sg733/36, scott630/33 MSsg737 scott634.
Peru 1989 230i on 300s sg 1703, scott ?
aukepalmhof
 
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Re: GALLEON

Postby aukepalmhof » Tue Jan 01, 2019 7:24 pm

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Mexico 1997 2.30p sg 2485, scott 2063
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