PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689


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Postby aukepalmhof » Mon May 13, 2013 2:53 am

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Built as a V/STOL carrier Project 1143.4 by the Chernomorsky yard, Nikolayev, for the Soviet Navy.
17 February1978 keel laid down.
31 March or 1 April 1982 launched as the BAKU, three sisters the KIEV, MINSK and NOVOROSSIYSK
Displacement 33,440 tons standard, 44,490 tons full load., dim. 273 x 51.9 x 9.42m. (draught)
Powered by four steam turbines, 200,000 shp, four shafts, speed 32 knots.
Range by a speed of 18 knots, 13,500 mile.
She were lacking catapults and arrester gear.
Armament: 6 – twin SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM launchers (12 missiles). 24 – 8-cell SA-N-9 vertrical SAM launchers (192 missiles). 2 – 100mm guns, 8 – AK-630 30mm CIWS and 10 – 533 mm torpedo tubes, 2 – RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers.
Carried 12 Yak-38M fighter aircraft and 20 Kamov Ka-25 or Kamov Ka-27 helicopters.
Crew 1,600.
11 December 1987 commissioned.

ADMIRAL GORSHKOV was a modified Kiev class aircraft carrier of the Russian Navy, originally named BAKU. Sometimes ADMIRAL GORSHKOV is considered a separate class due to its improvements including a phased array radar, extensive electronic warfare installations, and an enlarged command and control suite. In 2004, she was sold to India for conversion into a STOBAR carrier now named INS VIKRAMADITYA.
The ship was laid down in 1978 at Nikolayev South (Shipyard No.444) in Ukraine, launched in 1982, and commissioned in December 1987. The delay in commissioning was largely caused by software bugs in the new command and control system.
The ship was renamed ADMIRAL GORSHKOV after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, as the city of Baku was now in independent Azerbaijan. Sergey Gorshkov was responsible for the expansion of the Soviet Navy during the Cold War.
In 1994, following a boiler room explosion, the ship was docked for a year of repairs. Although she returned to service in 1995, she was finally withdrawn in 1996 and offered for sale.
On January 20, 2004, Russia agreed to sell the ADMIRAL GORSHKOV to India, though payment details are still being worked out. The original price was $947 million. The upgrade would be undertaken by Russia’s major shipyard, Sevmash Enterprise at Arkhangelsk. As of 2009, Russia is upgrading the ship by stripping all the weaponry from the ship's foredeck to make way for a Short Take-Off But Arrested Recovery configuration, with a ski-jump on the bow. The carrier will be named INS VIKRAMADITYA in Indian Navy service. Russia would also change the boilers to diesel fuel.
On December 17, 2009, it was reported that India and Russia ended the stalemate over ADMIRAL GORSHKOV price deal by agreeing on a price of USD 2.3-billion
On September 17, 2012, the Indian Navy revealed the ADMIRAL GORSHKOV (still to be named INS VIKRAMADITYA) had failed its sea trials. The refitted aircraft carrier could not reach "full speed" due to malfunctioning boilers. "Some of the 44,500-ton warship's eight boilers malfunctioned during the strenuous full-steam trials". The Indian Navy had planned on commissioning the VIKRAMADITYA on December 4, 2012, "Navy Day". Because of the failed sea trials, the warship must undergo repairs and modifications that will delay its commissioning for about 11 months, until October 2013.
The fourth of the Project 1143 aircraft carrying cruisers, BAKU had many differences to the rest of the class, trialing technologies to be used on the ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV. The most obvious is the massive planar array above the bridge. This was the antenna for the Mars-Passat ("Sky Watch") 3D air search radar, comparable to the US SCANFAR radar if not the AN/SPY-1 used by the Aegis combat system. Like SCANFAR, Sky Watch proved troublesome and was probably never operational.
The biggest change to the weapon systems was the replacement of the SA-N-3 Goblet and SA-N-4 Gecko SAM launchers with four SA-N-9 Gauntlet VLS launchers. This allowed room for another two SS-N-12 Sandbox launchers. The two AA guns of the Kievs were replaced with 100 mm guns, and the SUW-N-1 launcher was removed.
The air wing was the same as the other Kievs, consisting of a squadron of twelve Yak-38 'Forger V/STOL aircraft (until they were retired in 1992), twelve Ka-27 'Helix-A' ASW/SAR helicopters and two Ka-31 'Helix' AEW helicopters. Flight operations were assisted by the distinctive new Cake Stand TACAN radar.
BAKU was used for trials of the Yak-141 Freestyle supersonic VTOL fighter.
May 2013 still at the Russian shipyard and still carries the name ADMIRAL GORSHKOV.
Liberia 2012 $75 sg?, scott?
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