GREEK BIREME

The Greek bireme was an oared warship with two rows of oars on each side. It was a revolutionary invention by (possibly the Biotian Greeks since the Trojan War or more probable their settlers, the Erythraeans in Asia Minor in the 8th century B.C.) which doubled the motion force of the ship without increasing its length. This was an important advantage in pirate persecutions and in the ramming of opponents. She was fitted out with a bow ram
Steering was achieved with the two big oars. Place on both sides near the stern. Complementarily, it had a large square sail with many pulleys for its unencumbered handling. During fighting the sail was furled. It usually had 100 oars ("ekatontoros"). Its dimensions reached length 32 and beam 4.80 metres respectively.
Sometimes it had a deck for the protection of the oarsmen and the facile transport of the warriors.

SOURCES: "The History of the Greek Nation, Ekdotiki Athens", "Dellopoulos, The Greek Trireme", "Deligiannis Pericles, Naval History", "Homer, Iliad", "Aelianos Taktikos, Tactic theory".
Vietnam 1986 1d sg988, scott 1686.
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ADEN PORT

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ADEN PORT

Postby aukepalmhof » Wed Apr 04, 2018 9:44 pm

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Two stamps were issued by Yemen People’s Democratic Republic in 1988 for the 100th anniversary of Aden Port. The 75f stamp shows dhows and cargo vessels in the old port in 1888, while the 500f stamp shows us the new port of Aden with diverse cargo vessels.

The Port of Aden rests on an ancient natural harbour in the crater of an extinct volcano that forms the peninsula that protects the harbour. Aden was first mentioned in historical records in the Old Testament Book of Ezekiel as a trading partner with Tyre. The harbour was first used between the 5th and 7th Centuries B.C. by the Kingdom of Awsan.
Being about the same distance from Mumbai (Bombay) and Zanzibar, the ancient Port of Aden was a way-station for sea-going vessels and people. They stopped there to get supplies, particularly fresh water.
Arab historians describe the first fortifications in the Port of Aden to Beni Zuree'a who built the structures to protect the village from its enemies and to control the movement of goods in the area in order to prevent smuggling. The original fortifications were rebuilt in 1175 AD.
The Port of Aden is an ancient seaport. Marco Polo and Ibn Battutu visited the port in the 11th and 12th Centuries. The Chinese Emperor from the Ming Dynasty sent an envoy with gifts to the King of Aden in 1421.
In the 19th Century, it was an important ship fuelling port for steamers. After the Suez Canal opened, the Port of Aden became one of the busiest ship-bunkering, duty-free shopping, and trading ports in the world.
In 1838, the British took the Port of Aden and over 19 thousand hectares in the state of Lahej from Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl. In 1839, the British East India Company and Royal Marines occupied the territory to stop attacks by pirates who were assailing British ships going to India. The British also used the Port of Aden as a station for replenishing coal and boiler water. The British held the Port of Aden until 1967.
Until 1937, the Port of Aden was considered part of British India and was called the Aden Settlement. In 1937, the settlement was separated from India, becoming the British Crown Colony of Aden. The Port of Aden was also a distribution point for mail between British colonies. After the British lost the Suez Canal in 1956, the Port of Aden became the main British base for the region.
Under British rule, the Port of Aden was a tanker port that served British Petroleum Aden and offered amenities to British crews and refinery workers. Thousands of skilled workers and labourers were imported to build and operate the refinery. Much of the housing that was created for the workers is home to wealthy locals today. The British also housed troops in the Port of Aden to protect the refinery.
Facing pressure from the Soviet Union-backed communists in North Yemen, the British tried to prepare the different states under their control for independence. The Port of Aden colony was made part of the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South in 1963 under opposition from the North Yemen communists who claimed the city and region. Later, the region was renamed the Federation of South Arabia (FSA).
In 1963, resistance to British rule began with the Aden Emergency, a grenade attack on the British High Commissioner by the communist National Liberation Front (NLF). A state of emergency was declared in response. While the British announced their intention to make the FSA independent by 1968, they would leave British military units in the Port of Aden. Tensions continued to rise.
Riots broke out in the Port of Aden in 1967 between the NLF and the rival Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen. Fighting continued for several weeks despite British intervention. Both sides attacked British troops throughout the conflict, and an airplane was destroyed mid-air with no survivors. The British left the area in late 1967, and the NLF was in control.
In 1970, the Port of Aden became the capital of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. British Petroleum turned the oil refinery and tanker port in the Port of Aden over to the Yemeni government in 1977.
When the Suez Canal was closed in the 1970s, traffic through the Port of Aden declined. New quays were built in the 1980s to improve its competitive position and meet the demands of the changing marine trade industry. By the end of the 1980s, the Port of Aden had capacity to handle all types of dry cargo and modern containers.
When north and south Yemen were united in 1990, the Port of Aden became the capital of the Aden Governate but not of the nation. Since the 1990s, ports in Yemen are undergoing rapid privatization, increased investment, and growing manufacturing output. In 1998/99, the Port of Aden reached an all-time record for containerized cargo, with over 100 thousand TEUs passing through the port.
In 1992, the first recorded attack by Al Qaeda occurred with the bombing of the Gold Mohur Hotel in the Port of Aden. For a short time in 1994, the Port of Aden was the center of the secessionist Democratic Republic of Yemen. In 2000, the Port of Aden was the site of an Al Qaeda attempt to bomb the USS THE SULLIVANS, but the attacking boat sank and the plan was aborted. Later that year, the bombing of the USS COLE succeeded.

http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/re ... en_214.php
Yemen `People’s Democratic Republic 1988 75/500f sg408/09, scott?
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