SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year.
Other benefits include the availability of a "Packet" for anyone who wants to purchase or sell ship stamps.
Full membership of £17 (UK only) includes receiving Log Book by post, but there is an online membership costing just £12pa.
Full details can be found on our web site at http://www.shipstampsociety.com where you can also join and pay your chosen subscription through Paypal or by cheque.
A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

CORPUS CHRISTI PROCESSION ON LAKE HALLSTATT

The traditional Corpus Christi procession has been taking place on Lake Hallstatt for at least 389 years. This popular national holiday, steeped in local, historic tradition, will be celebrated by the lake.
Corpus Christi is a time when the people of Hallstatt decorate their traditional boats with flowers and foliage, and the village is prepared for a special celebration. The festivities date back to the Jesuits who formed colorful processions through the village. Due to the fact that there was limited open space in the old salt-mining village, the walking procession was replaced by boats and salt-carrying small ships on the lake. This afforded the local people some lovely views towards the "salt mountain" which had been their source of income for thousands of years.

The main procession, escorted by a choir and orchestra, assembles for worship at 9.00am in the parish and pilgrimage church "Our Lady of the Mountain" in Hallstatt. The lead celebrant is Otto Krepper, military deacon from Voralberg.

At around 10.00, the procession starts out towards the market square where the first "station" is made. The procession then continues down to the lake and along the lake shore from where the thousands of assembled Christians and visitors to Hallstatt will have stunning views of the bright and colorful collection of boats, and of the Holiest Sacrament. A second "station" is made by the War Memorial, and a third "station" of thanks-giving for young people will then be made by the bus terminal and the HTBLA.

The procession now continues on to the lake from where the "Plassen" - the mountain which guards over the people of Hallstatt - and also the "Salt Mountain" come into view. During the fourth "station" of thanks-giving, God is thanked for the "Mountain of Fortune" and the fruits of the earth.

Afterwards, the procession returns to dry land, and the procession continues back to the market square, accompanied by a local brass band. Here the final "blessing" is made and a The Deum is sung. The first ever procession was formed in 1623, and since 1628 has been a gift from the salt mines of Hallstatt.

Very significant members of the Hallstatt Corpus Christi Procession are the "Hallstatt Corpus Christi Gun Firers" who announce the most important parts of the proceedings by firing "Prangerstutzen" traditional guns. 3 shots are fired by the church and then by each "station" along the way, informing us of the significance of the events which follow. The day has a very early start for these men. They begin firing their guns at 6.00 am at the far end of Hallstatt. They move out on to the lake in boats, and every fifteen minutes continue their journey across the lake towards the church. At 9.00 they arrive on foot at the church and join the main procession.

https://dachstein.salzkammergut.at/en/h ... ssion.html
Austria 1993 5s sg2349, scott 1619.

Georgy Ushakov-explorer of the Arctic

Georgy Alexeyevich Ushakov (Russian: Георгий Алексеевич Ушаков) (17 (30) January 1901 – 3 December 1963) was a Soviet explorer of the Arctic. Ushakov broke new ground when he surveyed and explored Severnaya Zemlya, together with four other Arctic explorers, establishing that it was an archipelago. He was honoured by being named Doctor of Geographic Sciences in 1950. In 1926, Ushakov founded the first Soviet settlement on Wrangel Island (today called Ushakovsky) and was its head for three years. In 1930-1932, Ushakov headed the Severnaya Zemlya expedition and established a polar station called Остров Домашний (Domashniy Island). In 1929 and 1930 icebreaker Sedov carried groups of scientists to Franz Josef Land and later to former Emperor Nicholas II Land, the last major piece of unsurveyed territory in the Soviet Arctic. In 1926 the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR had renamed the still not fully explored land Severnaya Zemlya (Northern Land). This archipelago was completely mapped under Ushakov, together with geologist Nikolay Urvantsev, surveyor Sergei Zhuravlev and radio operator Vasily Khodovthoroughly surveyed Severnaya Zemlya during a 1930–1932 expedition to the archipelago. between 1930 and 1932. This voyage allowed to obliterate enormous "white spaces" on the Arctic map. Geographic features of the territory were named after different organizations, events and personalities. About the bleakness of Severnaya Zemlya Ushakov wrote:I have seen God-forsaken Chukotka Peninsula, blizzard-ridden Wrangel Island, twice visited fog enshrouded Novaya Zemlya, and I have seen Franz Josef Land with its enamel sky and proud cliffs garbed in blue, hardened glacial streams, but nowhere did I witness such grimness or such depressing, lifeless relief.. In 1935, Ushakov led the first Soviet high-latitude expedition on an icebreaker Sadko. The cruises of the Sadko went farther north than most; in 1935 and 1936 the last unexplored areas in the northern Kara Sea were examined and the little Ushakov Island was discovered. In 1937 the ship was caught in the ice with two others and forced to winter in the Laptev Sea, adding valuable winter observations to the usual summer ones. In 1932-1936, Georgy Ushakov was employed at the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route (Главное Управление Северного Морского Пути). Ushakov then worked at the Chief Directorate of Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR (1936-1940) and Soviet Academy of Sciences (1940-1958). Ushakov died in Moscow, but was buried on Domashniy Island in Severnaya Zemlya.
Russia 1987;5k; Рostal envelope. Centrafricaine 2016;2650f.
Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgy_Ushakov

Koch "St. Nicholas"

In the early 80s of the twentieth century, historians and enthusiasts in the city of Petrozavodsk joined the Polar Odyssey traveler club to study the Pomor maritime tradition and recreate copies of the Pomor pony and the nomadic. For several years, the club has recreated the "ordinary" boats: "Gourmet", "Faith", "Hope", "Love"; Pomor Koch - "Pomor". Soon a project was launched in Petrozavodsk, dedicated to the 365th anniversary of the opening of the Bering Strait by Semyon Dezhnev, it is called “The Arctic - the territory of discoveries”. This is a joint project of the government of the Chukotka Autonomous Region and the Russian Geographical Society. And in Karelia, the start was given because in Petrozavodsk at the shipyard of the famous center “Polar Odyssey” two kochas were built - “St. Nicholas” and “Apostle Andrey”, which will pass through the Semyon Dezhnev route. As the President of the State Polar Academy, First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Geographical Society, Artur Chilingarov, said at the opening, the project’s goal is to draw attention to the problems of the Russian Arctic and focus joint efforts on the development of interregional cooperation in the economic, scientific, cultural and tourism spheres. It was the government of Chukotka that ordered the construction of Siberian ships to the famous Karelian center. As Roman Kopin noted, today in Russia no one else does such wooden cots. What is he - Pomor? Its design is more complex than the rook design. Not a single authentic sample of these ships has been preserved. There are no detailed descriptions or their graphic images. Bit by bit, trackers were collected under the direction of Valery Dmitriev, indirect information about the construction of the Kochi, hull lines, main dimensions and sailing armament. We studied the wreckage of ships found on the islands and the coast of the Arctic. Enthusiasts have traveled around dozens of Pomeranian villages in order to crumble together the traditions of building small wooden ships that still exist among the people. So, after a long study and comparison of disparate information, a collective image of koch developed. Its characteristic features: small size - length 12 meters, width 4.4 meters; high seaworthiness with a strong wind reaching 20 m / s; high vessel speed up to 11 knots with an estimated 3-4 knots; maneuverability and stability with a slight draft of 1 meter and low weight up to 8 tons. Koç has a characteristic ovoid strong body. Sheathing is made on the inside. Such small vessels could carry up to 10 tons of cargo. "St. Nicholas" and "Apostle Andrew" were built according to archival data of the XVI-XVII centuries, were launched in Petrozavodsk on May 29, 2011 and during the project more than 11 thousand kilometers passed. The expedition "Chukotka - the territory of discoveries" was the final, third stage of the project "The Arctic - the territory of discoveries", dedicated to the 365th anniversary of the opening of the Bering Strait by Semen Dezhnev. The objective of the project is to draw public attention to the problems of the Russian Arctic, recall the bright pages of Russian history and great geographical discoveries, and tell about the region.The uniqueness of the expedition is that no one after Semyon Dezhnev passed this route on similar wooden ships with direct sailing equipment for one navigation in the format of coastal navigation. Travel in space and time is a continuation of the unique historical and geographical experiment of Russian scientists, which began in 2011. The main objectives of the scientific program: the search for traces of the Pomeranian culture in the mouths of the rivers Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, a visit to the Pomeranian village of Russkoye Ustye on the r. Indigirka, Chukchi and Eskimo coastal settlements, monitoring the status of cultural and natural heritage sites, description of the coastline. In addition to research, work will continue on the development of routes for Arctic tourism. Part of the developments of the expeditions of 2011-2012 has already been applied in the tourism sector. On July 28, 2013, the final and most important stage of the “Chukotka - Territory of Discovery” project started in the village of Tiksi - 4,000 km along the Northern Sea Route on the Pomeranian Kochi, in order to pass through Bering Strait by September and arrive in Anadyr, where the solemn events dedicated to the 365th anniversary of the opening of the strait between Asia and America by Semen Dezhnev. The expedition consists of only eight people who have traveled all the way from Tiksi to Anadyr - four for each ship. “We did it!” - the expedition leader Timofey Rogozhin summarized briefly. “Doubts were from the moment the project was born and before it came here. Even this morning, but we succeeded! We are still not fully aware of the uniqueness of the perfect, because no one after Semyon Dezhnev passed this route on wooden ships with direct sailing equipment for one navigation. ”
Russia 2011;Postcard.
Sources: http://www.petrozavodsk.ru/news/115195.html. http://www.vokrugsveta.com/body/press/melnik/pomor.htm.

ZUMWALT USS (DDG-1000)

Built as a destroyer by General Dynamics-Bath Iron Works yard. Bath, Maine for the USA Navy.
17 November 2011 laid down.
28 October 2013 launched as the USS ZUMWALT (DDG-1000).
Displacement 14,798 ton, dim. 182.9 x 24.6 x 8.4m. (draught).
Powered by two Rolls-Royce MT30 gas turbines each 35.4 MW driving Curtiss-Wright electric generators, driving two propellers, speed 33.5 knots.
Armament: 20x MK 57 VLS modules with four vertical launch cells in each module, 80 cells total, each cell hold one or more missiles, depending on the size of the missiles: RIM-66 Standard missiles. RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM). BGM-109 Tomahawk. RUM-139 VL-ASROC. 2 – 155mm Advanced Gun Systems with 920 round magazine. 2 – Mk 46 30mm gun.
Can carry 2 SH-60 LAMPS or 1 MH-60R helicopters.
Crew 142.
12 April 2014 christened by Ann Zumwalt and Mouzetta Zumwalt-Weathers daughters of the late General Elmo Zumwalt after which the ship was named.
15 October 2016 commissioned.

USS ZUMWALT (DDG-1000) is a guided missile destroyer of the United States Navy. She is the lead ship of the ZUMWALT class and the first ship to be named for Admiral Elmo ZUMWALT.[10][11] ZUMWALT has stealth capabilities, having a radar cross-section akin to a fishing boat despite her large size. On 7 December 2015, ZUMWALT began her sea trial preparatory to joining the Pacific Fleet. The ship was commissioned in Baltimore on 15 October 2016. She is homeported in San Diego, California.
Namesake
ZUMWALT is named after Elmo Russell Zumwalt, Jr., who was an American naval officer and the youngest man to serve as the Chief of Naval Operations. As an admiral and later the 19th Chief of Naval Operations, ZUMWALT played a major role in U.S. military history, especially during the Vietnam War. A highly decorated war veteran, ZUMWALT reformed the US Navy's personnel policies in an effort to improve enlisted life and ease racial tensions. After he retired from a 32-year naval career, he launched an unsuccessful campaign for the United States Senate.
The hull classification symbol for ZUMWALT is DDG-1000, which departs from the guided missile destroyer numbering sequence that goes up to DDG-126, which as of 2016, is LOUIS H. WILSON Jr., the latest of the named Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. ZUMWALT continues the previous "gun destroyer" sequence left off with 1983, DD-997, the last of the Spruance class, Hayler.

Role
The ZUMWALT class was designed with multimission capability. Unlike previous destroyer classes, designed primarily for deep-water combat, the ZUMWALT class was primarily designed to support ground forces in land attacks, in addition to the usual destroyer missions of anti-air, anti-surface, and antisubmarine warfare.
ZUMWALT is equipped with two Advanced Gun Systems (AGS), which are designed to fire the Long Range Land Attack Projectile (LRLAP). LRLAP was to be one of a range of land attack and ballistic projectiles for the AGS, but was the only munition the AGS could use as of 2018. LRLAP had a range of up to 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi) fired from the AGS. It was to be a key component for ground forces support, but LRLAP procurement was cancelled in 2016 and the Navy has no immediate plan to replace it.
The Navy has re-purposed the ZUMWALT class to surface warfare.

Construction
Many of the ship's features were originally developed under the DD21 program ("21st Century Destroyer"). In 2001, Congress cut the DD-21 program by half as part of the SC21 program. To save it, the acquisition program was renamed as DD(X) and heavily reworked. The initial funding allocation for DDG-1000 was included in the National Defense Authorization Act of 2007. By February 2008, a $1.4 billion contract had been awarded to Bath Iron Works in Bath, Maine, and full rate production officially began a year later, on 11 February 2009.
In July 2008, a construction timetable was set for General Dynamics to deliver the ship in April 2013, with a March 2015 target date for ZUMWALT to meet her initial operating capability but, by 2012 the planned completion and delivery of the vessel was delayed to the 2014 fiscal year. The first section of the ship was laid down on the slipway at Bath Iron Works on 17 November 2011, by which point, fabrication of the ship was over 60% complete. The naming ceremony was planned for 19 October 2013, but was canceled due to the United States federal government shutdown of 2013. The vessel was launched on 29 October 2013.

Sea trials
In January 2014, ZUMWALT began to prepare for heavy weather trials, to see how the ship and her instrumentation react to high winds, stormy seas, and adverse weather conditions. The ship's new wave-piercing inverted bow and tumblehome hull configuration reduce her radar cross-section. Tests involved lateral and vertical accelerations and pitch and roll. Later tests included fuel on-loading, data center tests, propulsion events, X-band radar evaluations, and mission systems activation to finalize integration of electronics. These all culminated in builders' trials and acceptance trials, with delivery for US Navy tests in late 2014, and with initial operating capability (IOC) to be reached by 2016.
ZUMWALT's first commanding officer was Captain James A. Kirk. Kirk attracted some media attention when he was first named the captain, due to the similarity of his name to that of the Star Trek television character Captain James T. Kirk, played by William Shatner. Shatner wrote a letter of support to ZUMWALT's crew in April 2014. On 7 December 2015, the ship departed Bath Iron Works for sea trials to allow the Navy and contractors to operate the vessel under rigorous conditions to determine whether ZUMWALT is ready to join the fleet as an actively commissioned warship.
On 12 December 2015, during sea trials, ZUMWALT responded to a US Coast Guard call for assistance for a fishing boat captain who was experiencing a medical emergency 40 nautical miles (74 km) from Portland, Maine. Due to deck conditions, the Coast Guard helicopter was unable to hoist the patient from the fishing boat, so the ZUMWALT's crew used their 11-meter rigid-hulled inflatable boat (RHIB) to transfer him to the destroyer, from which he was transported to shore by the Coast Guard helicopter and then to a hospital. The US Navy accepted delivery of ZUMWALT on 20 May 2016. In September 2016, it was reported that the vessel needed repairs after the detection of a seawater leak in the ship's auxiliary motor drive oil system. The US Navy commissioned ZUMWALT on 15 October 2016, in Baltimore during Fleet Week.

Post-commissioning
On 21 November 2016, ZUMWALT lost propulsion in her port shaft while passing through the Panama Canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean en route to her homeport in San Diego. Water had intruded in two of the four bearings that connect ZUMWALT's port and starboard Advanced Induction Motors to its drive shafts. Both drive shafts failed and ZUMWALT hit the lock walls in the canal, causing minor cosmetic damage. ZUMWALT's passage through the Panama Canal had to be completed with tugboats. ZUMWALT underwent repairs at Vasco Núñez de Balboa Naval Base near the Pacific end of the canal before continuing on to Naval Station San Diego. Upon the ship's arrival in San Diego, the leak was revealed to be through the lubrication cooling system, though the cause remains unknown.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Zumwalt
Maldives 2018 20MVR sg?, scott?

ZAYED SEA PORT IN ABU DAHBI

For the 20th anniversary of the Zayed Sea Port in Abu Dahbi, the United Arab Emirates (UAR) issued four stamps, which depict the port and cargo and container ships in port.

50F map of the port.
1Dh Cargo vessels and in the foreground a straddle carrier https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straddle_carrier and a gantry crane https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Container_crane
175 Dh Container ship unloading with gantry cranes.
2D map of the Red Sea with a container vessel.
All the ships are still so far not identified?

Of Zayed Sea Port is given by Wikipedia:
Zayed Port also referred to as Mina Zayed, is a commercial deep-water port owned by the Abu Dhabi Ports that serves Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Established in 1968, Zayed Port is located in the northeast section of Abu Dhabi city. It was officially inaugurated and became fully operational in 1972, and is named after Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the former President of the United Arab Emirates. The transfer of Zayed Port's container traffic to the newly developed US$7.2 billion Khalifa Port container terminal was completed in December 2012.
Geographic
Zayed Port covers an area of 535 hectares and contains 21 berths with depths ranging from 6 to 15 metres and a total berth length of 4,375 metres. It's one of four major ports in the emirate: the city's Zayed Port remains the gateway for general cargo vessels, RORO (roll-on/roll-off) and is emerging as a destination for international luxury cruise ship tourism the nearby Free Port caters to smaller vessels, tugs, barges and service crafts; Musaffah Port is located in the heart of the industrial township of Musaffah; while the new state-of-the-art Khalifa Port in Taweelah handles all the emirate's container shipping.
History
In light of the increasing importance of container shipping, a well-equipped container terminal was established at Zayed Port back in 1982. Covering an area of 41 hectares, the terminal had a storage capacity of 15,000 TEUs at any given time. Four deep water berths were provided with a total length of 931 metres and 15 metres depth. The berths were equipped with five 40-tonne cranes. As a result, Zayed Port's throughput in 1998 increased 34 percent in container volume and 25 percent in general cargo over 1997. The port's capacity to hold chilled, cool and frozen products was significantly increased when a 15,000 tone cold store became operational in 1999. Benefiting from its strategic location in the heart of the capital, Zayed Port was instrumental in bolstering Abu Dhabi’s international trade, being the main gateway for trade in the emirate and playing a pivotal role in supporting Abu Dhabi’s Economic Vision 2030, the government’s drive to achieve economic diversification. As part of this vision, all container shipping in Zayed Port was eventually moved to the Abu Dhabi Ports' newly developed AED 26.5 billion AED (USD 7.2 billion) megaproject Khalifa Port in Taweelah between Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Following the 100% TEU traffic transition from Zayed Port in September 2012, commercial operations at this new flagship state-of-the-art gateway were officially inaugurated by the President of the United Arab Emirates, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan on 12 December 2012.

Zayed Port is now the focus of the Abu Dhabi Ports's plans to redevelop the port as a major luxury cruise ship terminal. Abu Dhabi is currently a seasonal home port for AIDA Cruises, while Celebrity Cruises announced in December 2014 that they would be home porting their cruise ship CELEBRITY CONSTELLATION in Abu Dhabi from November, 2016 to January 2017.

In 2014 the Red Bull Air Race World Championship season opened in Zayed Port. This was the seventh occasion the competition was hosted in Abu Dhabi and marked the first time the city saw the event since 2010, when it had hosted the opener for six consecutive years starting from 2005.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zayed_Port
United Arab Emirates 1992 50f/2F sg377/80, scott 389/92.

Atlasov V.V. Explorer of Kamchatka

Vladimir Vasilyevich Atlasov (1661–1711) was a Russian Siberian (Yakut) Cossack explorer. He provided the first information about Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. The great Russian poet and writer A.S. Pushkin called Vladimir Atlasov "Kamchatka Yermak", and the Russian geographer Stepan Krasheninnikov-- "the master of Kamchatka". In 1672 Atlas was taken in Yakutsk to the royal service to collect yasak and search for new lands. In 1695 he was sent as a clerk to the most remote region of Russia, Anadyr. In 1697, led by a detachment of 120 people. moved to Kamchatka with the aim of joining it to Russia. In the summer of 1697, Atlasov managed to get to the headwaters of the Kamchatka River, where he built the Upper Kamchatka cabin. Thus, most of the peninsula came under the authority of the Atlasov detachment, and then the expedition leader decided to perpetuate the annexation of the peninsula to Russia. On July 23, 1697, a cross was erected on the left tributary of Kamchatka, the Krestova River (Kanuch), which had stood there for almost forty years (see the picture on the envelope). He built the city of Verkhne-Kamchatsk. In 1701 he received the rank of Cossack commander. Atlas made the first description of the nature and population of Kamchatka, outlined information about Alaska, the islands near Kamchatka, the Chukotka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and Japan. Atlasov’s extensive and reliable records of the value and completeness of geographical and ethnographic information far exceed the reports of other explorers. The name of Atlasov is an island in the Sea of Okhotsk, a village on Sakhalin Island.
Russia1990; 5k.Postal envelope. Source: http: //discover-history.com/explorers/Atlasov-Vladimir-Vasilyevich.htm
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ST LOUIS 1929

The full index of our ship stamp archive

ST LOUIS 1929

Postby aukepalmhof » Thu Nov 29, 2018 7:52 pm

st louis 1929 photo.jpg
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2018 St Louis.jpg
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Sierra Leone is one of the countries which is flooding the market with new issues, which are not worth the paper were she are printed on.
One of the new issues shows us the ST LOUIS and in the margin a Mississippi river steamer.

The ST LOUIS was built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard no 670 by the Bremer Vulkan Werft in Vegesack near Bremen for the Hamburg Amerika Line (HAPAG), Hamburg.
16 June 1925 keel laid down.
02 August 1928 launched as the ST LOUIS.
Tonnage 16,732 gross, 9,637 net, dim. 174.90 x 22.10 x 8.66m. (draught), length bpp.165.7m.
Powered by four 6-cyl. MAN diesel engines each 3,000 hp, twin shafts, speed 16 knots.
Passenger accommodation for 270 first class, 287 second class and 413 tourist class.
March 1929 completed.

28 March 1929 she made her maiden voyage from Hamburg to New York, thereafter mostly used in the Nord Atlantic service between Hamburg to Halifax and New York.
In the autumn and winter made 16-17 days cruises to Madeira, Canarias Islands and Morocco.

MS ST.LOUIS was a German ocean liner. In 1939, she set off on a voyage in which her captain, Gustav Schröder, tried to find homes for over 900 Jewish refugees from Germany. They were denied entry to Cuba, the United States, and Canada. The refugees were finally accepted in various European countries, including Belgium, the Netherlands, the UK, and France. Historians have estimated that approximately a quarter of them died in death camps during World War II. The passengers' experience has been treated in film, opera, and fiction.

Background
Built by the Bremer Vulkan shipyards in Bremen for HAPAG, better known in English as the Hamburg America Line, ST.LOUIS was a diesel-powered ship (as opposed to a diesel-fired steamer) and properly referred to with the prefix MS or MV, but she is often known as SS ST.LOUIS. The ship was named after the city of ST.LOUIS, Missouri. (Her sistership, the MS MILWAUKEE, was also a diesel motor ship/motor vessel owned by the Hamburg America Line). ST.LOUIS regularly sailed the trans-Atlantic route from Hamburg to Halifax, Nova Scotia and New York and made cruises to the Canary Islands, Madeira and Morocco. ST.LOUIS was built for both transatlantic liner service and for leisure cruises.

"Voyage of the Damned"
ST.LOUIS set sail from Hamburg to Cuba on May 13, 1939. The vessel under command of Captain Gustav Schröder was carrying 937 passengers, most of them Jewish refugees seeking asylum from Nazi ill-treatment of Jews in Germany (→ Kristallnacht, Racial policy of Nazi Germany). Captain Schröder was a non-Jewish German who went to great lengths to ensure dignified treatment for his passengers.
The passengers aboard ST.LOUIS had suffered abuse in Germany, but on board, they were treated very well, at the insistence of Captain Schröder. Food served included items subject to rationing in Germany, and childcare was available while parents dined. Dances and concerts were put on, and on Friday evenings, religious services were held in the dining room. A bust of Hitler was covered by a tablecloth. Swimming lessons took place in the on-deck pool. Lothar Molton, a boy traveling with his parents, said that the passengers thought of it as "a vacation cruise to freedom".
The ship dropped anchor at 04:00 on May 27 at the far end of the Havana Harbor but was denied entry to the usual docking areas. The Cuban government, headed by President Federico Laredo Brú, refused to accept the foreign refugees. Although passengers had previously purchased legal visas, they could not enter Cuba either as tourists (laws related to tourist visas had recently been changed) or as refugees seeking political asylum. On May 5, 1939, four months before World War II began, Havana abandoned its former pragmatic immigration policy and instead issued Decree 937, which "restricted entry of all foreigners except U.S. citizens requiring a bond of $500 and authorization by the Cuban secretaries of state and labor. Permits and visas issued before May 5 were invalidated retroactively. None of the passengers were aware that the Cuban government had retroactively invalidated their landing permits.
After five days in the harbor, only 29 passengers were allowed to disembark in Cuba. Twenty-two of them were Jews that had valid US visas; of the others, four were Spanish citizens and two were Cuban nationals, all with valid entry documents. The last was a medical evacuee who, after attempting to commit suicide, was taken to a hospital in
Telephone records show American officials Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, and Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury had made some efforts to persuade Cuba to accept the refugees. Their actions, together with efforts of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, were not successful.

Prohibited from landing in Cuba, ST.LOUIS and the remaining 907 refugees headed towards the United States. Captain Schröder circled off the coast of Florida, hoping for permission to enter the United States. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, advised Roosevelt not to accept the Jews, however. Captain Schröder considered running aground along the coast to allow the refugees to escape, but, acting on Cordell Hull's instructions, US Coast Guard vessels shadowed the ship and prevented such a move.
After ST.LOUIS was turned away from the United States, a group of academics and clergy in Canada tried to persuade Canada's Prime Minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King, to provide sanctuary to the ship's passengers, as it was only two days from Halifax, Nova Scotia. But Canadian immigration official Frederick Blair, hostile to Jewish immigration, persuaded the prime minister on June 9 not to intervene. In 2000, Blair's nephew apologized to the Jewish people for his uncle's action.
The situation of the vessel deteriorated as Captain Schröder negotiated and schemed to find them a safe haven. At one point he formulated plans to wreck the ship on the British coast to force the passengers to be taken as refugees. He refused to return the ship to Germany until all the passengers had been given entry to some other country. US officials worked with Britain and European nations to find refuge for the travelers in Europe. The ship returned to Europe, docking at the Port of Antwerp (Belgium) on June 17, 1939, with 907 passengers.

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed to take 288 (32%) of the passengers, who disembarked and traveled to the UK via other steamers. After much negotiation by Schröder, the remaining 619 passengers were allowed to disembark at Antwerp; 224 (25%) were accepted by France, 214 (23.59%) by Belgium, and 181 (20%) by the Netherlands. The ship returned to Hamburg without any passengers. The following year, after the Nazi German invasions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands in May 1940, all the Jews in those countries were at renewed risk, including the recent refugees.
Based on the survival rates for Jews in various countries, historians estimate that 180 of ST.LOUIS refugees in France, 152 of those in Belgium, and 60 of those in the Netherlands survived the Holocaust. Including the passengers who landed in England, of the original 936 refugees (one man died during the voyage), roughly 709 survived the war and 227 did not. More detailed research tracing each passenger has determined that 254 of those who returned to continental Europe were murdered during the Holocaust:

Of the 620 ST.LOUIS passengers who returned to continental Europe, we determined that eighty-seven were able to emigrate before Germany invaded western Europe on May 10, 1940. Two hundred fifty-four passengers in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands after that date died during the Holocaust. Most of these people were murdered in the killing centers of Auschwitz and Sobibór; the rest died in internment camps, in hiding or attempting to evade the Nazis. Three hundred sixty-five of the 620 passengers who returned to continental Europe survived the war. Of the 288 passengers sent to Britain, the vast majority were alive at war's end
Legacy
After the war, Captain Gustav Schröder was awarded the Order of Merit by the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1993, Schröder was posthumously named as one of the Righteous among the Nations at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Israel. A display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum tells the story of the voyage of the MS ST.LOUIS. The Hamburg Museum features a display and a video about ST.LOUIS in its exhibits about the history of shipping in the city. In 2009, a special exhibit at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia entitled "Ship of Fate" explored the Canadian connection to the tragic voyage. The display is now a traveling exhibit in Canada.

In 2011 a memorial monument called the Wheel of Conscience, was produced by the Canadian Jewish Congress, designed by Daniel Libeskind with graphic design by David Berman and Trevor Johnston. The memorial is a polished stainless steel wheel. Symbolizing the policies that turned away more than 900 Jewish refugees, the wheel incorporates four inter-meshing gears each showing a word to represent factors of exclusion: antisemitism, xenophobia, racism, and hatred. The back of the memorial is inscribed with the passenger list.[24] It was first exhibited in 2011 at the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21, Canada's national immigration museum in Halifax. After a display period, the sculpture was shipped to its fabricators, Soheil Mosun Limited, in Toronto for repair and refurbishment.
In 2012, the United States Department of State apologized in a ceremony attended by Deputy Secretary Bill Burns and 14 survivors of the incident. The survivors presented a proclamation of gratitude to various European countries for accepting some of the ship’s passengers. A signed copy of Senate Resolution 111, recognizing June 6, 2009 as the 70th anniversary of the incident, was delivered to the Department of State Archives.
In January 2017, software engineer Russel Neiss and Rabbi Charlie Schwartz set up a Twitter account which tweeted the name of each passenger who was not allowed to disembark and subsequently killed. The format of each tweet included the passenger's name, the sentence "The US turned me away at the border in 1939" and the location where each was killed.
In May 2018, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the Government of Canada would offer a formal apology in the country's House of Commons for its role in the fate of the ship's passengers. The apology was issued on November 7
Later career
The MS ST.LOUIS was adapted as a German naval accommodation ship from 1940 to 1944. She was heavily damaged by the Allied bombings at Kiel on August 30, 1944, was beached and refloated and repaired in 1946 where after she was used as a hotel ship at the Altonaer Landungsbrücke in Hamburg. She was later sold and towed to Bremerhaven and was scrapped there in 1952.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_St._Louis
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