SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year.
Other benefits include the availability of a "Packet" for anyone who wants to purchase or sell ship stamps.
Full membership of £17 (UK only) includes receiving Log Book by post, but there is an online membership costing just £12pa.
Full details can be found on our web site at http://www.shipstampsociety.com where you can also join and pay your chosen subscription through Paypal or by cheque.
A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

LENITA

Stanley Gibbons gives that the LENITA is depict on this 1983p stamp of the Falkland Islands, I found in Falkland Shipping Registry that the LENITA made a call at Port Stanley on 06 May 1898 under command of Capt. Clausen, arriving with a cargo of coal from Newcastle on Tyne, U.K. and she left on 25 June 1898. At that time she was sailing under the Danish flag.
Then she arrived on 08 March 1911 from London, and sailed again on 21 March 1911 bound for San Carlos, Port Stephens etc.
The last time she is given that she arrived 02 May 1911 from Port Stephens, Port Howard, etc., sailed on 07 May 1911 for Venezuela.

Mr. Tom Lloyd gives in Log Book October 1983 page 300/02 in an article how he identified the vessel depict on the stamp:

One of the most entertaining and satisfying aspects of our hobby is the time spent searching out the background information about the ships depicted on stamps.
Sometimes this involves writing many letters to people we don’t even know, or reading through volumes of books and magazines. Sometimes one almost gives up just before the answer turns up from an unexpected source. Take for example the 10p value of the Falkland’s 150th Anniversary set that was issued on January 3rd 1983, depicting a pair of ships under the title “Ship repairing trade 1850-1890”.
During this period shipping around the Cape (Horn) was increasing so that Port Stanley grew in importance for both ship repairing and re-victualling. The peak of this trade was reached in 1867, but, due to new and more stringent Board of Trade regulations, plus the advent of steam power meant that the trade began to decline, though Port Stanley remained and important port for the Royal Navy during both World Wars.
It has taken me ten months to “dig-out” the details of just one of the ships, the nearest), shown on this stamp which was designed by Ian Strange and Duffy Sheridan for lithographic printing by the House of Quests. This search involved writing to the Falkland Islands and the designers of the issue; but in the end it was a request in the “Upland Goose” which brought a reply from Mr. L. Griffiths, who like myself, is a member of the Falkland Islands Study Group.
He wrote to say that the ship in the foreground is a 392 ton Swedish barque (must be Danish barque) named the LENITA, which arrived at Stanley from London on March 3rd1910 under command of Captain Malquest and with a crew of ten.
She remained at the island for over a year, departing on May 3rd 1911 bound for the Columbian port of Rio Hache.
Both Mr. Griffiths and I find it puzzling why the LENITA was so long in the Falklands, unless she was involved in the carrying of inter-island cargoes, or even perhaps in seal or whale oil trading, for there are barrels pictures on the stamp, lined up on the jetty.
Mr. Griffiths informs me that he now owns a copy of the actual photograph upon which the design of the stamp was based; and reports that the ship, its sails, the jetty and the barrels have been faithfully reproduced.
However he adds on the original photograph there are four ships other ships; one to the west of the LENITA and three to the right. One is the hulk of the famous S.S. GREAT BRITAIN, two are steamers and the fourth is an unknown sailing ship, which judging from its condition could have been another floating hulk.
None of those other four vessels however are remotely like the background ship depicted on the stamp, which is more like a 19th century ship than one of the early 20th like the LENITA. (Which of course would fit in with the dates, 1850-90.)
It seems most odd that the LENITA was used to illustrate the late 19th century “Repairing Trade”, for she was photographed at Stanley, sometimes between 1909 and 1911 and was more likely involved in activities other than being repaired. The fact that she is pictured at the Government Public Jetty makes it unlikely that she was repaired, for such vessels were usually at anchor, or at one of the Falkland Island Company jetties. Thus it seems that the stamp artists have taken “philatelic Licence”, in order to make a picturesque design.
Research in the actual photograph used as the basis of the issue, turned out to be rather interesting, for it was one of a collection of old glass plates found by a Mr. Joseph Ring in his garage in 1977.
Mr Griffiths spent a deal of time with Mr. Peter Gilding enlarging the pictures on this plates and taking prints from them. Indeed the name of the LENITA was obtained by reading it on the ship as seen on one of Peter Gilding’s clever magnifications. Information about her was then researched from the Falkland Islands Government Shipping Records, with valuable additional information coming from some older residents of Stanley.
The approximate age of the photographic plates came from those showing a badly battered sailing ship in Stanley Harbour with masts severely damaged. From one of her lifeboats, Mr Griffiths and friends identified this ship as the WAVERTREE, and English vessel that arrived at the Falklands on December 7th 1910; and the background to this photograph that plus others in the collection, including that of the LENITA all fitted together as if the photographer had taken a set of pictures, “panning” round the view of the port. This discovered proving its rather “incorrect” use for the design of a stamp supposedly showing the repair industry of 1850 to 1890.
I must in all fairness end by expressing a debt of gratitude to Mr. Griffiths who has so interestingly “dugout” information about yet another ship-stamp from the British Territories in the Far South.

The Falkland Island Ship Registry gives for the LENITA also her Capt. name as Clausen I searched the net and I found the following, My Danish is not good at all so there could be mistakes be made in the translation.

Built at the Vindskärs Varv by J. A. Strandberg and Sjölén, Sundsvall, Sweden for A/S Barkskipet Lenita’s rederi (P.H. Clausen) at Norby, Fanø, Denmark.
09 June 1894 launched as the LENITA.
Tonnage 451 brt, 401 net, dim. 143.6 x 30.3 x 15.1ft.Bark rigged.
Wooden hull, copper sheathed.
The yard lost 23.000 Kr on this deal.

Sailed for her maiden voyage under command of Capt. S.P. Clausen after she had loaded a full load of timber in Sundsvall in July for Delagoa Bay arrived 10 November in Delagoa Bay, thereafter she proceeded to Beira, Fort Harnelin, Delagoa Bay to Miko in the Bismarck Archipelago, Samoa and Tonga from where she left with a cargo of copra to Valparaiso, Chile.
From Valparaiso she returned to Mioko Island and Sainoa where she loaded for Liverpool, where she arrived on 21 December 1896, after being away from Europe for 2¼ year.
1902 She loaded coffee in Batavia and Padang, Indonesia for New York where she arrived on 13 February 1903.
13 February 1903 her last long voyage was from Gothenburg with timber for Punta Arenas, Chile. Then in ballast to Montevideo where after she loaded in Conception for Hull. Her next voyage was to Sundsvall for a cargo of timber back to Hull.
From there she sailed to Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, then she sailed to La Vela de Corvo, Azores to load divi-divi for Hamburg where she arrived on 08 August 1905.
29 December 1906 the LENITA was sold to Robert Petersson in Bergkvara, Sweden for 20,000 Kr.
Used in Baltic and North Sea trades thereafter.
1910 After discharging props in Hartlepool, she loaded there a cargo of coal for Port Stanley, then she made some voyages in South America and the Caribbean
After 1914 re-rigged in a barkentine (other sources give schooner) and again used in the North Sea and Baltic trades.
1916 Sold in Gothenburg for 75,000 Kr. to Karl Lundgren, Bergkvara. A year later sold to Algot Södergren in Blidö for 115,000 Kr.
1922 Sold to N.O. Lagerstedt, Stockholm.
1927 Sold to J.E. Jansson in...

TOURISM in CUBA

Cuba Post issued in 1992 four stamps for tourism, all this stamps shows some watercraft.

10c Depict a wind surfboard see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11030&p=11712&hilit=windsurfing#p11712
20c Depict a pedalo, see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11030&p=11712&hilit=windsurfing#p11712
30c depict according Watercraft Philately and the Stanley Gibbons catalogue a replica of a “caravel” (redonda) entering the port of Havana, the stamp is not so clear but she is square rigged on fore and main mast see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10014&p=11903&hilit=caravel+redonda#p11903
50c Show a wind surfboard see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11030&p=11712&hilit=windsurfing#p11712

Cuba 1992 10/50c sg3738/41, scott 3432/35.

pedalo

Cuba issued four stamps in 1992 for tourism, the 20c shows us a “pedalo” of which
Wikipedia gives:
A pedalo (British English) or paddle boat (U.S., Canadian, and Australian English) is a small human-powered watercraft propelled by the action of pedals turning a paddle wheel.
The paddle wheel of a pedalo is a smaller version of that used by a paddle steamer. A two-seat pedalo has two sets of pedals, side by side, designed to be used together. Some models, however, have three pedals on each side to allow a person boating alone to pedal from a centrally seated position.
Pedalos, being particularly suited to calm waters, are often hired out for use on ponds and small lakes in urban parks.
The earliest record of a pedalo is perhaps Leonardo da Vinci's diagram of a craft driven by two pedals.

Also on the right of the stamp is a small sailyacht of which I have not any information.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedalo
Cuba 1992 20c sg 3739, scott 3433.

La REINE HORTENSE yacht

Iceland issued in 1986 four stamps for the “Bicentenary of the City of Reykjavik” of which the 12 Kr stamp shows us an 1856 view from the banks of the Tjörn (Pond) with in the background the bay of Reykjavik. By the stamp is given by the Icelandic Post:
In the background there is the French Imperial yacht La REINE HORTENCE. This illustration is copied after a picture in a book entitled’ Voyage dans le mers du Nord” by Charles Edmond, which was published in 1857 and described the French Prince Napoleon’s voyage around the Northern oceans in 1856.

August 1844 the 3-mast yacht was laid down for King Louis-Philippe under the name COMTE D’EU on the yard of Augustin Normand in Le Havre.
20 December 1846 launched.
Displacement 1,100 ton, dim. 62 x 10.80 x 5.7m.
Powered by a Creusot 4-cyl. steam engine, 320 nhp, speed 12 knots.
Armament 6 – 12cm guns.
Laid down as COMTE D’EU, the ship was renamed to PATRIOTE on 20 February 1848 after the French Revolution of 1848.

In June 1853, she became the imperial yacht REINE HORTENSE.
06 August 1853 in Dieppe.
July 1854 Sailed from Cherbourg for Bayonne, at the disposal of the Empress.
19 August 1854 arrived in Danzig.
In 1855, she served as a troopship to ferry forces bound for the theatre of the Crimean War.
08 February 1855 arrived in Kamiesch https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamiesch with ships in tow.

In June 1865 (wrong given by Wikipedia, must be 1856) she took Prince Napoléon on an expedition to Greenland, with the ARTÉMISE (1847), a 28-gun corvette, La PERDRIX and, the COCYTE and two British coal tender screw steamers, the TASMANIA and the SAXON of 700 tons each. On 30 June at Reykjavík in Iceland, she met again Lord Dufferin who was on his own travels that would feature in his book Letters From High Latitudes, published the next year. Dufferin's journey was taking in Iceland, Jan Mayen and Spitzbergen. He had chartered the schooner FOAM for the task. Dufferin was invited to join Prince Napoleon aboard his royal steamer, and the Prince hearing that the FOAM had broken down offered them a tow north to Jan Mayen as they were going to the same region. On their last night in Reykjavik the prince held a ball to which all the rank, fashion, and beauty of the tiny town (population 700 or 800) were invited.
The FOAM was attached with two cables and the flotilla set off on 7 July, the collier SAXON traveling all too slowly behind. The fragile La REINE HORTENSE was soon to be in increasing danger from the ice and the French were required to abandon their journey 100 miles short of Jan Mayen, and return to Reykjavík. So on 11 July they let loose the FOAM to carry on north by sail. This was fortunate in a sense since on their return they were to discover that the SAXON had been damaged by ice, and would have meant that the convoy would have been short of fuel. This effectively cancelled the expedition.

18-20 May 1857 sailed from Bordeaux to Rochefort with the Emperor Napoleon III and Grand Duke Konstantine Nikolayevich of Russia. Then via other French ports to the Isle of Wight and returned back in Calais on 31 May 1857, where after the Grand Duke leaves the vessel and traveled to Brussel.
07 July 1857 back in The Isle of Wight with Prince Napoleon and his suite, where after she sailed via Lerwick and Bergen to the North Cape.
REINE HORTENSE ferried Prince Napoléon Bonaparte from Marseille to Genoa in early 1859 for his marriage to Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy, and Napoléon III from Marseille to Genoa on 11 and 12 May 1859.
28 June 1860 in the port of Toulon, 12 April 1862 sails from Toulon with the Duchess of Hamilton https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_ ... %80%931888)
In 1862 she was in the Baltic when she gave aid to a British vessel who she towed 80 miles from Bomarsund to Stockholm, on board had been Lord Dufferin, who she was to meet again 3 years later.
21 March1863 arrived in the harbour of Villefrance with the EAGLE.
06 October 1863 arrived on the road of La Rochelle with on board the Emperor.
01 January 1864 returned to the French Navy.
The REINE HORTENSE was recommissioned as the imperial yacht on 20 April 1865 for an official visit of the Emperor to Algeria.
01 October 1865 decommissioned as imperial yacht in Cherbourg.
On 14 February 1867, she was renamed to CASSARD, and commissioned for the Algiers station. She served there until 1881, when she was decommissioned in Toulon before becoming a littoral defence ship
Renamed to FAUNE in 1893, she was used as a hulk in Port-Vendre then munition depot in Toulon. She was eventually broken up in 1920.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ship_Cassard_(1846) http://www.dossiersmarine.org/c-c5.htm
Iceland 1986 12 Kr sg 684, scott ?

Exploration of Albany

In 1991, Australia issued a stamp and a miniature sheet, commemorating exploration of Albany, Western Australia by George Vancouver (1791) and Edward Eyre (1841). The coastline of the Albany area was observed for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship “ Gulden Zeepaert” (The Golden Seahorse), who sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia and back. Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago. GEORGE VANCOUVER: Departing England with two ships, HMS” Discovery” and HMS “Chatham”, on 1 April 1791, Vancouver commanded an expedition charged with exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition travelled to Cape Town, Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, and Hawaii, collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way. On 29 September 1791, explorer Captain George Vancouver while exploring the south coast, entered and named “King George the Third's Sound” and” Princess Royal Harbour”, and took possession of New Holland for the British Crown. Vancouver went out of his way to establish good relationships with the local Aboriginal people.On the stamp In the background is the “Discovery”. JOHN EYRE: In 1841, Albany was the final destination of the explorer Edward John Eyre, the first European to reach Western Australia by land from the eastern colonies. Eyre, together with his Aboriginal companion Wylie , was the first European to traverse the coastline of the Great Australian Bight and the Nullarbor Plain by land in 1840–1841, on an almost 2000 mile trip to Albany, Western Australia . He had originally led the expedition with John Baxterand three aborigines. On 29 April 1841, two of the aborigines killed Baxter and left with most of the supplies. Eyre and Wylie were only able to survive because they chanced to encounter, at a bay near Esperance, Western Australia , a French whaling ship Mississippi , under the command of an Englishman, Captain Thomas Rossiter, for whom Eyre named the location Rossiter Bay .
Аustralia 1991;1.05;SG1303. Source: https://www.rosebedsstampshop.com/austr ... s-mnh.html. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_o ... _Australia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Vancouver. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_John_Eyre

STERN TRAWLER (stylized)

Iceland issued two stamps for the “Export, Trading and Commerce” of which the 35Kr shows us a stylized stern trawler viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11826

By the stamps is given by the Icelandic Post:
The Post and Telecommunications Administration will be issuing two new stamps which depict a few tokens of the branches of industry involved in exporting products from Iceland.

Icelanders are heavily dependent upon foreign trade. The geographical position of lceland and natural conditions lead to our having to transact extensive trade with other countries. Vigorous export activities are the basis for Iceland being an affluent society in the Westem manner. lt will hardly be disputed that the export value is the basis for the standard of living in Iceland being among the best in the world. High prices of sea products on the world market and strong marketing advances by Icelandic concerns have contributed to the fact that the Icelandic people have succeeded in building up a modern society.

Iceland Chamber of Commerce was established in 1917 with 170 founders from all around the country. Now the members are around 390 and consist of representatives of various spheres of the Icelandic economy, Ieading in the various progressive matters of Icelandic firms. The Export Council of lceland was established in 1986 in order to support Icelandic concerns in foreign marketing activities- The Council represents a field of work for most Icelandic Companies which in some way have to do with currency creative assignments. The Export Council s revenues are a part of the expenditure tax base of concerns in the processing of fish, industry, construction work, fisheries and carriage by sea and land. The Board of Directors of the Export Council consist of nine representatives of various spheres of the Icelandic economy as well as representatives of the public sector. In 1991 the total foreign currency receipts of the Icelandic people came to about ISK 130 billion. Sea products weigh most heavily. In 1991 these returned earnings amounting to over ISK 73 billion. Industry ranks next with a yield of about ISK 16 billion. income on account of communications came to almost ISK 13 billion and the tourist industry yielded over ISK 7 billion- Income from agriculture, including fish farming produce, has decreased considerably and agricultural export amounts to ISK 1.5 billion only. The countries of the European Community are Iceland s most important customers Britain is at the top of the list and Germany, France and Denmark are also prominent. Altogether almost 70% of Iceland’s total export go to EU countries. The United States of America and Japan are also important markets for Icelandic produce and about 12% of exports go to the former, but 7% to the latter.
The role of the Export Council is that of granting to export concerns information and marketing advice which aim at increasing the export value of goods and services from Iceland. Also to increase knowledge of the market and competitiveness of Icelandic concerns, thereby building a foundation for better livelihood in the country as well as creating a positive general image of the country, its people and products.
On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Icelandic Freezing Plants Corporation (SH) the other of the new stamps will depict its trade mark amongst few tokens. The establishment meeting of the Corporation was held on February 25th 1942. The purpose of the Corporation’s foundation was that of selling fish products in foreign markets, undertaking the purchase of operational goods, searching for new markets and experimenting with new products and methods of production.
Twenty three quick freezing plants around the-country are the founders of the Icelandic Freezing Plants Corporation, but now the producers are around 70. The corporation has throughout its activities been in the lead of Icelandic export concerns. In 1947 |he Corporation (SH) founded the concern of Coldwater Seafood Corporation in order to handle the sales of fish products in the United States market. ln 1956 a marketing office of the Icelandic Freezing Plants Corporation was opened
In England and in 1983 a subsidiary company ' Icelandic Freezing Plants, Limited was established
In England. Sales offices of the Icelandic Freezing Plants Corporation are also operated in Germany,
France and Japan, but dealings with the European Continent and Asia have increased rapidly during recent years.

The trade mark ICELANDIC originated in the United States, but it has become an image of quality products in the minds of fish buyers around the world. Behind this trade mark is a long story of development in a tough market where constant watchfulness in the field of quality and sales affairs has to be demonstrated.

Source: Icelandic Post.
Iceland 1992 30/35kr. sg788/789 scott 752/753
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ST LOUIS 1929

The full index of our ship stamp archive

ST LOUIS 1929

Postby aukepalmhof » Thu Nov 29, 2018 7:52 pm

st louis 1929 photo.jpg
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2018 St Louis.jpg
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Sierra Leone is one of the countries which is flooding the market with new issues, which are not worth the paper were she are printed on.
One of the new issues shows us the ST LOUIS and in the margin a Mississippi river steamer.

The ST LOUIS was built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard no 670 by the Bremer Vulkan Werft in Vegesack near Bremen for the Hamburg Amerika Line (HAPAG), Hamburg.
16 June 1925 keel laid down.
02 August 1928 launched as the ST LOUIS.
Tonnage 16,732 gross, 9,637 net, dim. 174.90 x 22.10 x 8.66m. (draught), length bpp.165.7m.
Powered by four 6-cyl. MAN diesel engines each 3,000 hp, twin shafts, speed 16 knots.
Passenger accommodation for 270 first class, 287 second class and 413 tourist class.
March 1929 completed.

28 March 1929 she made her maiden voyage from Hamburg to New York, thereafter mostly used in the Nord Atlantic service between Hamburg to Halifax and New York.
In the autumn and winter made 16-17 days cruises to Madeira, Canarias Islands and Morocco.

MS ST.LOUIS was a German ocean liner. In 1939, she set off on a voyage in which her captain, Gustav Schröder, tried to find homes for over 900 Jewish refugees from Germany. They were denied entry to Cuba, the United States, and Canada. The refugees were finally accepted in various European countries, including Belgium, the Netherlands, the UK, and France. Historians have estimated that approximately a quarter of them died in death camps during World War II. The passengers' experience has been treated in film, opera, and fiction.

Background
Built by the Bremer Vulkan shipyards in Bremen for HAPAG, better known in English as the Hamburg America Line, ST.LOUIS was a diesel-powered ship (as opposed to a diesel-fired steamer) and properly referred to with the prefix MS or MV, but she is often known as SS ST.LOUIS. The ship was named after the city of ST.LOUIS, Missouri. (Her sistership, the MS MILWAUKEE, was also a diesel motor ship/motor vessel owned by the Hamburg America Line). ST.LOUIS regularly sailed the trans-Atlantic route from Hamburg to Halifax, Nova Scotia and New York and made cruises to the Canary Islands, Madeira and Morocco. ST.LOUIS was built for both transatlantic liner service and for leisure cruises.

"Voyage of the Damned"
ST.LOUIS set sail from Hamburg to Cuba on May 13, 1939. The vessel under command of Captain Gustav Schröder was carrying 937 passengers, most of them Jewish refugees seeking asylum from Nazi ill-treatment of Jews in Germany (→ Kristallnacht, Racial policy of Nazi Germany). Captain Schröder was a non-Jewish German who went to great lengths to ensure dignified treatment for his passengers.
The passengers aboard ST.LOUIS had suffered abuse in Germany, but on board, they were treated very well, at the insistence of Captain Schröder. Food served included items subject to rationing in Germany, and childcare was available while parents dined. Dances and concerts were put on, and on Friday evenings, religious services were held in the dining room. A bust of Hitler was covered by a tablecloth. Swimming lessons took place in the on-deck pool. Lothar Molton, a boy traveling with his parents, said that the passengers thought of it as "a vacation cruise to freedom".
The ship dropped anchor at 04:00 on May 27 at the far end of the Havana Harbor but was denied entry to the usual docking areas. The Cuban government, headed by President Federico Laredo Brú, refused to accept the foreign refugees. Although passengers had previously purchased legal visas, they could not enter Cuba either as tourists (laws related to tourist visas had recently been changed) or as refugees seeking political asylum. On May 5, 1939, four months before World War II began, Havana abandoned its former pragmatic immigration policy and instead issued Decree 937, which "restricted entry of all foreigners except U.S. citizens requiring a bond of $500 and authorization by the Cuban secretaries of state and labor. Permits and visas issued before May 5 were invalidated retroactively. None of the passengers were aware that the Cuban government had retroactively invalidated their landing permits.
After five days in the harbor, only 29 passengers were allowed to disembark in Cuba. Twenty-two of them were Jews that had valid US visas; of the others, four were Spanish citizens and two were Cuban nationals, all with valid entry documents. The last was a medical evacuee who, after attempting to commit suicide, was taken to a hospital in
Telephone records show American officials Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, and Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury had made some efforts to persuade Cuba to accept the refugees. Their actions, together with efforts of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, were not successful.

Prohibited from landing in Cuba, ST.LOUIS and the remaining 907 refugees headed towards the United States. Captain Schröder circled off the coast of Florida, hoping for permission to enter the United States. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, advised Roosevelt not to accept the Jews, however. Captain Schröder considered running aground along the coast to allow the refugees to escape, but, acting on Cordell Hull's instructions, US Coast Guard vessels shadowed the ship and prevented such a move.
After ST.LOUIS was turned away from the United States, a group of academics and clergy in Canada tried to persuade Canada's Prime Minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King, to provide sanctuary to the ship's passengers, as it was only two days from Halifax, Nova Scotia. But Canadian immigration official Frederick Blair, hostile to Jewish immigration, persuaded the prime minister on June 9 not to intervene. In 2000, Blair's nephew apologized to the Jewish people for his uncle's action.
The situation of the vessel deteriorated as Captain Schröder negotiated and schemed to find them a safe haven. At one point he formulated plans to wreck the ship on the British coast to force the passengers to be taken as refugees. He refused to return the ship to Germany until all the passengers had been given entry to some other country. US officials worked with Britain and European nations to find refuge for the travelers in Europe. The ship returned to Europe, docking at the Port of Antwerp (Belgium) on June 17, 1939, with 907 passengers.

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed to take 288 (32%) of the passengers, who disembarked and traveled to the UK via other steamers. After much negotiation by Schröder, the remaining 619 passengers were allowed to disembark at Antwerp; 224 (25%) were accepted by France, 214 (23.59%) by Belgium, and 181 (20%) by the Netherlands. The ship returned to Hamburg without any passengers. The following year, after the Nazi German invasions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands in May 1940, all the Jews in those countries were at renewed risk, including the recent refugees.
Based on the survival rates for Jews in various countries, historians estimate that 180 of ST.LOUIS refugees in France, 152 of those in Belgium, and 60 of those in the Netherlands survived the Holocaust. Including the passengers who landed in England, of the original 936 refugees (one man died during the voyage), roughly 709 survived the war and 227 did not. More detailed research tracing each passenger has determined that 254 of those who returned to continental Europe were murdered during the Holocaust:

Of the 620 ST.LOUIS passengers who returned to continental Europe, we determined that eighty-seven were able to emigrate before Germany invaded western Europe on May 10, 1940. Two hundred fifty-four passengers in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands after that date died during the Holocaust. Most of these people were murdered in the killing centers of Auschwitz and Sobibór; the rest died in internment camps, in hiding or attempting to evade the Nazis. Three hundred sixty-five of the 620 passengers who returned to continental Europe survived the war. Of the 288 passengers sent to Britain, the vast majority were alive at war's end
Legacy
After the war, Captain Gustav Schröder was awarded the Order of Merit by the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1993, Schröder was posthumously named as one of the Righteous among the Nations at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Israel. A display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum tells the story of the voyage of the MS ST.LOUIS. The Hamburg Museum features a display and a video about ST.LOUIS in its exhibits about the history of shipping in the city. In 2009, a special exhibit at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia entitled "Ship of Fate" explored the Canadian connection to the tragic voyage. The display is now a traveling exhibit in Canada.

In 2011 a memorial monument called the Wheel of Conscience, was produced by the Canadian Jewish Congress, designed by Daniel Libeskind with graphic design by David Berman and Trevor Johnston. The memorial is a polished stainless steel wheel. Symbolizing the policies that turned away more than 900 Jewish refugees, the wheel incorporates four inter-meshing gears each showing a word to represent factors of exclusion: antisemitism, xenophobia, racism, and hatred. The back of the memorial is inscribed with the passenger list.[24] It was first exhibited in 2011 at the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21, Canada's national immigration museum in Halifax. After a display period, the sculpture was shipped to its fabricators, Soheil Mosun Limited, in Toronto for repair and refurbishment.
In 2012, the United States Department of State apologized in a ceremony attended by Deputy Secretary Bill Burns and 14 survivors of the incident. The survivors presented a proclamation of gratitude to various European countries for accepting some of the ship’s passengers. A signed copy of Senate Resolution 111, recognizing June 6, 2009 as the 70th anniversary of the incident, was delivered to the Department of State Archives.
In January 2017, software engineer Russel Neiss and Rabbi Charlie Schwartz set up a Twitter account which tweeted the name of each passenger who was not allowed to disembark and subsequently killed. The format of each tweet included the passenger's name, the sentence "The US turned me away at the border in 1939" and the location where each was killed.
In May 2018, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the Government of Canada would offer a formal apology in the country's House of Commons for its role in the fate of the ship's passengers. The apology was issued on November 7
Later career
The MS ST.LOUIS was adapted as a German naval accommodation ship from 1940 to 1944. She was heavily damaged by the Allied bombings at Kiel on August 30, 1944, was beached and refloated and repaired in 1946 where after she was used as a hotel ship at the Altonaer Landungsbrücke in Hamburg. She was later sold and towed to Bremerhaven and was scrapped there in 1952.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_St._Louis
Sierra Leone 2018 Le 40,000 sgMS?, scott?
aukepalmhof
 
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