Built as a nuclear submarine under yard no 147 by Electric Boat Co, Groton for the USA Navy.
18 July 1955 ordered.
21 July 1955 laid down.
16 May 1957 launched as the USS SKATE (SSN-578)
Displacement 2,590 ton surfaced, 2,894 ton submerged, dim. 81.56 x 7.6 m,
Powered by S3W nuclear reactor, geared steam turbines, two shafts, 6,600 shp (4,900 kW)., twin shafts, speed 15.5 knots surfaced, 18 knots submerged.
Armament: 8 – 21 inch torpedo tubes, 6 forward and 2 aft.
Crew 84.
23 December 1957 commissioned.

USS SKATE (SSN-578), the third submarine of the United States Navy named for the SKATE, a type of ray, was the lead ship of the Skate class of nuclear submarines. She was the third nuclear submarine commissioned, the first to make a completely submerged trans-Atlantic crossing, and the second submarine to reach the North Pole and the first to surface there.

The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat division of General Dynamics on 18 July 1955, and her keel was laid in Groton, Connecticut on 21 July 1955. She was launched on 16 May 1957 sponsored by Mrs. Lewis L. Strauss, and commissioned on 23 December 1957 with Commander James F. Calvert in command.

Operational history
SKATE conducted shakedown training out of New London, Connecticut until 29 January 1958, when she cruised to the Bermuda operating area, then returned to her home port on 8 February. Sixteen days later, the nuclear powered submarine set a course for the Isle of Portland, England. Before returning home, she had also visited ports in France and the Netherlands.
On 30 July, SKATE sought the Arctic where she operated under the ice for 10 days. During this time, she surfaced nine times through the ice, navigated over 2,400 miles (3,900 km) under it, and on 11 August, 9:47 pm EDT (the week after USS NAUTILUS ) became the second sea ship to reach the North Pole. SKATE was unable to surface precisely at the Pole on the August voyage due to dangerous ice conditions as noted in the captain's 1960 book, Surface at the Pole: The Extraordinary Voyages of the USS SKATE, where Calvert said, "Seldom had the ice seemed so heavy and so thick as it did in the immediate vicinity of the pole. For days we had searched in vain for a suitable opening to surface in." The closest was to make radio contact at the surface from a polynya around 30 nm away, but not to surface fully owing to the risk of damage from ice. SKATE did manage to surface and make contact with Drifting Ice Station Alpha at 85ºN, 300 nm away.
After being denied access to visit Copenhagen in Denmark, she sailed into Bergen, Norway on 23 August. There she was inspected by king Olav V of Norway, US ambassador Frances E. Willis and minister of defence Nils Handal. The submarine made port calls in the Netherlands, Belgium, and France before returning to New London on 25 September 1958. In recognition of the dangerous and historic feat, the SKATE and its crew was given the Navy Unit Commendation award for "... braving the hazards of the polar ice pack...."
While the SKATE was unable to surface on its first voyage to the pole, on 17 March 1959, she became the first submarine to surface at the North Pole with Calvert describing the historic moment in his book, saying, "Slowly we blew the tanks and the SKATE moved reluctantly upward. It was apparent we were under heavier ice here than any we had experienced before." While at the pole, Calvert and the crew planted an American Flag in a cairn they built out of ice blocks and put a waterproof container in the cairn with a note commemorating the event. The crew also held a ceremony for the late Arctic explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins and committed his ashes at the pole. In 1931, Sir Hubert had conducted an Arctic expedition in the disarmed research submarine NAUTILUS (ex-USS O-12). After reaching the Pole, the SKATE continued its mission to pioneer arctic operations during periods of extreme cold and maximum ice thickness. When the submarine returned to port, she was awarded a bronze star in lieu of a second Navy Unit Commendation for demonstrating "... for the first time the ability of submarines to operate in and under the Arctic ice in the dead of winter...." In the fall of 1959 and in 1960, SKATE participated in exercises designed to strengthen American antisubmarine defenses.

SKATE returned to General Dynamics in January 1961 for a regular overhaul and to have her reactor refueled for the first time. She put to sea in August and, for the next 11 months, conducted exercises to increase the operational readiness of her crew.
On 7 July 1962, SKATE again set course towards the North Pole. Five days later, USS SEADRAGON , did likewise from Pearl Harbor. The two submarines made their rendezvous on 31 July. After meeting, they operated together for over a week. Both submarines surfaced at the North Pole on 2 August and official greetings and insignia of Submarine Force Atlantic Fleet and Submarine Force Pacific Fleet were exchanged.
SKATE returned to New London and performed fleet and local operations for the next several years. She entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard on 28 April 1965, the first nuclear submarine overhauled there, for nuclear refueling and installation of the SUBSAFE package. SKATE was the first submarine to finish this major conversion program, which was instituted after the loss of USS THRESHER in 1963. The process was not completed until September 1967.

After sea trials and a shakedown cruise in the Caribbean, the submarine returned to New London and participated in exercises involved in the development of new undersea tactics and equipment.
In October 1968, SKATE was deployed to the Mediterranean where she operated with the Sixth Fleet for two months. The polar veteran operated under the Arctic ice again in March and April 1969, in October 1970, and in February 1971 . The remainder of her at sea time was spent in various Atlantic Fleet and NATO exercises. In July 1971, she began her third regular overhaul at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and did not return to New London until 17 November 1973. In August 1974, SKATE operated as a unit of the Atlantic Fleet.

In late 1977, SKATE transferred to Pearl Harbor, where she joined the other three SKATE class submarines as a member of Submarine Squadron 7.

SKATE was decommissioned on 12 September 1986, stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 30 October 1986, and disposed of by submarine recycling at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard on 6 March 1995.

SKATE received two Navy Unit Commendations and three Meritorious Unit Commendations during her career. The first Navy Unit Commendation was for the period 9–12 August 1958 and the second for the period 4 March through 6 April 1959. The Meritorious Unit Commendations were for the periods 24 March through 15 April 1969, 12 October through 18 November 1970 and 26 February through 9 March 1971. (Source – US Navy Unit Awards Webpage.)

Popular culture
SKATE appears in Tom Clancy's 1993 novel Without Remorse.
SKATE appears in the 1961 film, Parrish as the submarine upon which the title character is stationed.
The 1978 disaster film Gray Lady Down features a fictional SKATE-class submarine USS NEPTUNE.
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STATEN ISLAND icebreaker

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STATEN ISLAND icebreaker

Postby aukepalmhof » Fri Feb 08, 2019 10:49 pm

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Built as an icebreaker under yard No 140 by the Western Pipe and Steel Company, San Pedro for the US Coast Guard.
09 June 1942 laid down.
28 December 1942 launched as the USCGC NORTHWIND. One of the Windclass icebreakers.
Displacement 6,515 ton, 6,629 ton full load. Dim. 82 x 19.35 x 7.82m. (draught), length bpp. 76.2m.
Powered diesel electric by 6 Fairbanks-Morse model 8-1/8OP, 10-cyl. each 2,000 shp, each driving a Westinghouse DC electric generator. Two Westinghouse Electric DC electric motors driving the 2 aft propellers, 1 3000 shp Westinghouse DC electric motor driving the detachable and seldom used bow propeller. Speed 16.8 knots.
Range 32,485 mile.
Armament when delivered
4 – 3 inch, 8 – 40mm, 6 – 20mm guns and 2 depth charges tracks.
Carried one Grumman 12F Duck seaplane.
Crew: Accommodation for 21 officers and 295 enlisted in 1942.
26 February 1944 commissioned.

USCGC STATEN ISLAND (WAGB-278) was a United States Coast Guard Wind-class icebreaker. Laid down on 9 June 1942 and launched on 28 December 1942, the ship was commissioned on 26 February 1944, and almost immediately afterward transferred to the Soviet Union, under the Lend Lease program, under the name SEVERNY VETER, which loosely translates as NORTHWIND, until 19 December 1951. When returned to the United States Navy, she was designated USS NORTHWIND until 15 April 1952, when she was renamed STATEN ISLAND to distinguish her from her successor USCGC NORTHWIND (WAGB-282) which had been laid down shortly after she was lent to the Soviet Union. The ship was transferred to the US Coast Guard as USCGC STATEN ISLAND in February 1965, and served until November 1974, before being scrapped.

Wind class icebreaker
STATEN ISLAND was one of the icebreakers designed by Lieutenant commander Edward Thiele and Gibbs & Cox of New York, who modeled them after plans for European icebreakers he obtained before the start of World War II. She was the first of seven completed ships of the Wind-class of icebreakers operated by the United States Coast Guard. She was laid down on 9 June 1942 at Western Pipe and Steel Company shipyards in San Pedro, California, launched on 28 December 1942 and commissioned on 26 February 1944. Once commissioned, she was almost immediately transferred to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease program.1944
Her hull was of unprecedented strength and structural integrity, with a relatively short length in proportion to the great power developed, a cut away forefoot, rounded bottom, and fore, aft and side heeling tanks. Diesel electric machinery was chosen for its controllability and resistance to damage. STATEN ISLAND had her designed heavy armament reduced to four single 3"50cal., eight single 40mm., and two depth charge racks for Soviet service. After her return she received a single 5"38 cal. mount forward and a helicopter deck aft. In USCG service she had the forward mount removed.
Service history

Soviet Union (1944–1951)
SEVERNY VETER, (Russian: Северный Ветер or "North Wind"), was transferred to the Soviet Navy in February 1944 through the Lend-Lease program, serving in the Northern Route Command. In 1946 she was renamed KAPITAN BELOUSOV (Russian: Капитан Белоусов) after Soviet icebreaker commander Captain M.P. Belousov. Custody of Belousov was returned to the United States Navy on 19 December 1951 at Bremerhaven, Germany.

United States Navy (1951–1966)
On 19 December 1951 the ship was renamed USS NORTHWIND. On 25 February 1952 the NORTHWIND arrived at Boston Naval Shipyard, Boston, Massachusetts, for overhaul and fitting out as a unit of the United States Atlantic Fleet.
On 15 April 1952 she was renamed STATEN ISLAND to distinguish her from her successor ship USCGC NORTHWIND (WAGB-282), which had been laid down shortly after the ship was sent to the Soviets. STATEN ISLAND was named for the New York City borough of STATEN ISLAND. Coincidentally, the major interstate highway that runs through the borough is numbered as Interstate 278.
Overhaul was completed by 30 June 1952, and on 1 July 1952 she sailed from Boston to Grenfell Sound, Labrador, to conduct ice reconnaissance in Frobisher Bay, returning to Boston on 8 September.
STATEN ISLAND departed Boston for Resolution Island on 25 April 1952 to relieve EDISTO (AGB-2), returning to Boston on 10 June. During August, STATEN ISLAND became the first U.S. Navy ship to cut through the Davis Strait from Thule to Ellesmere Island.
In the following year, 1954, STATEN ISLAND was involved in three ice breaking operations through 15 December 1954.
In 1955 her home port was changed to Seattle, Washington. STATEN ISLAND sailed for Seattle on 19 May 1955, and arrived there on 10 June 1955 for duty with Service Squadron 1. From June through September 1955, she broke ice for ships resupplying the Distant Early Warning Line radar stations, returning to Seattle on 28 September 1955.
STATEN ISLAND departed Seattle on 5 July 1956 to lead another convoy of resupply ships bound for the Distand Early Warning Line through the ice, returning to Seattle on 6 September 1956. She was then assigned to Operation Deep Freeze II and departed Seattle for Antarctica on 3 November 1956. STATEN ISLAND rendezvoused with cargo ship WYANDOT (AKA-92) near the Panama Canal Zone before both continued on for Antarctica, arriving on 15 December 1956 at the Weddell Sea pack ice, and then breaking through the Antarctic Circle on 20 December 1956 en route to Cape Adams. The icebreaker led WYANDOT from Cape Adams to Gould Bay where Ellsworth Station was then assembled. She departed Gould Bay on 15 February 1957 to return home to Seattle, arriving there on 5 April 1957.
On 15 October 1963 while on the summer Arctic mission, the Captain, Commander John Metschl, and a Navy helicopter pilot was lost at sea doing ice reconnaissance. The only remains found were one of the helicopter's pontoons floating at sea.
On 1 February 1966, STATEN ISLAND was decommissioned by the United States Navy and struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 March 1966.

United States Coast Guard (1963–1973
She was then transferred to the United States Coast Guard, where she was redesignated USCGC STATEN ISLAND (WAGB-278), and home-ported at Seattle. During the summer of 1966, the engineering plant was upgraded and modifications were made to the flight deck and hangar to allow operation of a HH-52A Seaguard Helicopter. The Coast Guard then deployed her to Antarctica as part of that season's "Operation Deep Freeze" on 22 September 1966.
STATEN ISLAND returned from her Antarctic voyage on 6 April 1967 and was then sent into the Arctic Ocean above Alaska for four months during the spring and summer of 1967 during which time she ran aground while traveling west from Prudhoe Bay and sustained minor damage. STATEN ISLAND then broke ice to assist her sister ship, NORTHWIND (WAGB-282), twice during the 1967 fall ice season; in September 1967 NORTHWIND lost a propeller and became locked in the ice, and she was trapped again in October–November 1967 450 nautical miles (830 km) north-northwest of Point Barrow, Alaska.
During July and August 1968 STATEN ISLAND was assigned to conduct an oceanographic survey of the Chukchi Sea-Bering Strait area as part of a cooperative effort between the Coast Guard Oceanographic Unit, the University of Alaska and the University of Washington.
On 10–11 March 1969, she rescued the crew of the fishing vessel FV MARTINDALE which had run aground off Akun Island. STATEN ISLAND was dispatched to the Arctic Ocean on 7 July 1969 as an oceanographic research platform and escort vessel for supply operations. There she helped STORIS (WMEC-38) reach open water off Point Barrow on 7 September 1969, relieved NORTHWIND on 22 September 1969 after that vessel suffered engine trouble, and assisted the Canadian icebreaker CCGS JOHN A. MACDONALD in escorting the tanker SS MANHATTAN eastward through the Northwest Passage. STATEN ISLAND arrived in New York on 9 November 1969, and departed for Seattle on 9 December 1969 by way of the Panama Canal with stops in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Acapulco, Mexico. Upon her arrival back in Seattle, STATEN ISLAND became the fourth United States ship to circumnavigate the North American continent, traveling over 23,000 miles (37,000 km) in the process.
She departed Seattle on 6 July 1970 to conduct scientific tests and evaluation of crude oil spread rate in the Arctic Ocean. Later that summer when a large group of 20 tugboats and 40 barges bound for Prudhoe Bay with vital supplies became trapped in pack ice, STATEN ISLAND worked around the clock for 3½ days to tow and push the barges to open water. She freed the fouled screw of the tugboat ACTIVE 30 nautical miles (56 km) southwest of Point Barrow on 14 August 1970, and returned to Seattle on 20 August 1970. STATEN ISLAND departed Seattle once more later in 1970 as part of

"Operation Deep Freeze 1971".
On 28 February 1971, while en route to Mawson Station she struck an uncharted pinnacle 14 nautical miles (26 km) north of the station, suffering significant damage, including a punctured hull that flooded four compartments, but no crew injuries. After completing temporary repairs in Melbourne, Australia and certified seaworthy, USCGC BURTON ISLAND was ordered to escort the STATEN ISLAND home to Seattle.
In mid-March 1972, during "Operation Deep Freeze", while en route from Dunedin, New Zealand, to Suva, Fiji, STATEN ISLAND was broadsided by a rogue wave and came within 2 degrees of capsizing. While ascending the ladder to the bridge to relieve the helmsman, Seaman Cotten hailed the Officer of the Day moments before an 80 ft (24 m) wall of water struck the port beam. With the bridge doors open the bridge instantly filled with water, as well as the stairwell in which Seaman Cotten was prevented from ascending. The ship listed heavily to starboard, began to shake with one propeller turning in the air, then rolled back to port causing the starboard wing to scoop up seawater, sending everyone splashing toward the overhead (again). Only one man was injured; a fireman climbing up from the engine room who twisted an ankle. In early March 1972 STATEN ISLAND became the first United States Government vessel to enter the port in Dunedin.
Later in 1972 the ship departed Seattle for Arctic Summer North carrying scientists from the University of Anchorage, the University of Washington, and the Smithsonian Institution to make determinations on the effects drilling for oil on the north slope of Alaska would have on the environment.
During February 1973 STATEN ISLAND participated in the Bering Sea Experiment as part of her Arctic West Winter activities, 475 nautical miles (880 km) north of Adak Island, with the Soviet research vessel PRIBOV and several aircraft. From 7 March through 3 April 1973, she was attached to Task Unit 57.0 of the Pacific Fleet during SUBICEX 1-73. Her crew received refresher training between 5 and 16 November 1973, at which time she departed Seattle to escort ships in "Operation Deep Freeze 1973".
STATEN ISLAND was decommissioned on 15 November 1974, and sold for scrap.

STATEN ISLAND was awarded the Coast Guard Unit Commendation with Operational Distinguishing Device for the periods of 23 September–8 October 1967, 21 September–1 November 1969 and 7 March 1973 – 3 April 1973. From 12 December 1970 through 10 March 1971, STATEN ISLAND participated in Task Force 43, along with USCGC EDISTO , USCGC GLACIER and USCGC WESTWIND, for which she was awarded the Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation. She was awarded another Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation for her service in Task Force 43 from 5 December 1973 through 22 February 1974. STATEN ISLAND also earned two awards of the National Defense Service Medal ... _(WAGB-278)
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