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Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Feb 21, 2021 8:45 pm

2020 type 212 submarine U_34_in_Fahrt.jpg
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2020 type 212 Submarines (2).jpg
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This stamp from Sierra Leone issued in 2020 shows us a type 212 submarine which are till so far in service by the German and Italian Navy.
The first unit the U-31 was laid down on 01 July 1998 and commissioned on 19 October 2005.
Displacement 1,524 tonnes surfaced, 1,830 tonnes submerged, dim. 56 x 6.80 x 6.40m (draught surface)
Powered by one MTU 16V diesel engine (2,150 kW). One Siemens Permasyn electric motor, type FR6439-3900KW (2,850kW), one shaft, speed 12 knots surfaced, 20 knots submerged.
Range 8,000 miles at 8 knots.
Test depth 250 metres, crush depth over 700 m.
Endurance: Three weeks without snorkelling, 12 weeks overall.
Armament: 6 x 533 millimetres (21 in) torpedo tubes (in 2 forward pointing groups of 3) with 13DM2A4, Black Shark torpedo, IDAS missiles and 24 external naval mines (optional).
Crew 5 officers and 22 men.

The German Type 212 class (German: U-Boot-Klasse 212 A), also the Italian Todaro class, is a diesel-electric submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German and Italian navies. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP) system using Siemens proton exchange membrane (PEM) compressed hydrogen fuel cells. The submarines can operate at high speed on diesel power or switch to the AIP system for silent slow cruising, staying submerged for up to three weeks with little exhaust heat. The system is also said to be vibration-free, extremely quiet, and virtually undetectable.
Type 212 is the first fuel cell propulsion system equipped submarine series.
At the beginning of the 1990s, the German Navy was seeking a replacement for the Type 206 submarines. The initial study started on Type 209 improved design, with AIP capability, called Type 212.
The final program started in 1994 as the two navies of Germany and Italy began working together to design a new conventional submarine, respectively to operate in the shallow and confined waters of the Baltic Sea and in the deeper waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The two different requirements were mixed into a common one and, because of significant updates to the design, the designation has been changed to Type 212A since then.
On 22 April 1996, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) gave the start to the cooperation for building four vessels for the German Navy and four vessels for the Italian Navy. Its main aim was the construction of identical boats and the start of a collaboration in logistic and life-cycle support for the two navies. The German government placed an initial order of four Type 212A submarines in 1998. The German Submarine Consortium built them at the shipyards of HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH (TNSW) of Emden. Different sections of the submarines were constructed at both sites at the same time and then half of them were shipped to the respective another yard so that both HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke assembled two complete submarines each.

In the same year, the Italian government placed an order of two U212A submarines built by Fincantieri for the Italian Navy (Marina Militare) at Muggiano shipyard, designated as the Todaro class.
The German Navy ordered two additional, improved submarines in 2006, to be delivered from 2012 on. They will be 1.2 meters longer to give additional space for a new reconnaissance mast.
On 21 April 2008, the Italian Navy ordered the optional second batch of submarines, in the same configuration as the original ones. Some upgrading should involve materials and components of commercial derivation, as well as the software package of the CMS. The intention is to keep the same configuration as the first series and reduce maintenance costs.
The export-oriented Type 214 submarine succeeds the Type 209 submarine and shares certain features with the Type 212A, such as the AIP fuel cell propulsion.
Poland announced in December 2013 they will not buy, but only lease, two U212-A's, on account of not meeting "requirements of tactical and technical equipment developed by the military, including in particular the propulsion system, missile weapons, and rescue system". On 22 December 2015 Admiral Giuseppe De Giorgi, Commander in Chief of the Italian Navy, announced plans to build another two U212A submarines.
In October 2016, during the celebration of the commissioning of U36, the German Navy announced the intent to procure another batch of two U212A within the next decade.
In February 2017, it was announced that the Royal Norwegian Navy will procure four submarines based on Type 212. Initial plans envisaged service entry between 2025 and 2028. However, the Norwegian 2020 Defence Plan later envisaged service entry "around 2030".This "CD" (Common Design) variant of Type 212 will consist of six submarines, with the German Navy ordering two new boats alongside the four Norwegian vessels.

Partly owing to the "X" arrangement of the stern planes, the Type 212 is capable of operating in as little as 17 metres of water[ allowing it to come much closer to shore than most contemporary submarines. This gives it an advantage in covert operations, as SCUBA-equipped commandos operating from the boat can surface close to the beach and execute their mission more quickly and with less effort.
A notable design feature is the prismatic hull cross-section and smoothly faired transitions from the hull to the sail, improving the boat's stealth characteristics. The ship and internal fixtures are constructed of nonmagnetic materials, significantly reducing the chances of it being detected by magnetometers or setting off magnetic naval mines.

Air-independent propulsion
Although hydrogen–oxygen propulsion had been considered for submarines as early as World War I, the concept was not very successful until recently due to fire and explosion concerns. In the Type 212 this has been countered by storing the fuel and oxidizer in tanks outside the crew space, between the pressure hull and outer light hull. The gases are piped through the pressure hull to the fuel cells as needed to generate electricity, but at any given time there is only a very small amount of gas present in the crew space.

Currently, the Type 212A is capable of launching the fiber optic-guided DM2A4 Seehecht ("Seahake") heavyweight torpedoes, the WASS BlackShark torpedoes and short-range missiles from its six torpedo tubes, which use a water ram expulsion system. Future capability may include tube-launched cruise missiles.
The short-range IDAS missile (based on the IRIS-T missile), primarily intended for use against air threats as well as small or medium-sized sea- or near land targets, is currently being developed by Diehl BGT Defence to be fired from Type 212's torpedo tubes. IDAS is fiber-optic guided and has a range of approx. 20 km. Four missiles fit in one torpedo tube, stored in a magazine. First deliveries of IDAS for the German Navy were scheduled from 2014 on.
A 30 mm auto-cannon called Muräne (moray) to support diver operations or to give warning shots is being considered, too. The cannon, probably a version of the RMK30 built by Rheinmetall, will be stored in a retractable mast and can be fired without the boat emerging. The mast will also be designed to contain three Aladin UAVs for reconnaissance missions. This mast is likely to be mounted on the second batch of Type 212 submarines for the German Navy.

In April 2006, the German Navy's U-32 sailed from the Baltic Sea to Rota, Spain in a journey lasting two weeks, covering 1,500 nautical miles (2,800 km; 1,700 mi) without surfacing or snorkeling.
The Italian Navy's S 526 TODARO was deployed, for over six months in 2008, to the United States for CONUS 2008 exercise with United States Navy.
The Italian Navy's S 527 SCIRÉ was deployed, for over five months in 2009, to the U.S. for CONUS 2009 exercise with United States Navy.
The Italian Navy's S 526 TODARO, between 1 September 2012 and 13 February 2013, for the first time, was deployed to the Aden Gulf, Arabic Sea, Oman Gulf, and the Indian Ocean.
In 2013, while on the way to participate in naval exercises in U.S. waters, the German Navy's U-32 established a new record for non-nuclear submarines with 18 days in submerged transit without snorkeling.
On 15 October 2017, the German Navy's U-35 suffered damage to its rudder fins while conducting dives off the Norwegian coast.
Sierra Leone 2020 Le14500 sg?, scott? Sierra Leone 2020 LE14500 sg?, scott? (Although this issue was authorized by the postal administration of Sierra Leone, the issue was not placed on sale in Sierra Leone, and was only distributed to the new issue trade by Sierra Leone's philatelic agent.)
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