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BELLEROPHON HMS 1787

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BELLEROPHON HMS 1787

Postby aukepalmhof » Wed Mar 10, 2021 7:29 pm

2005 Bellerophon--in-action-vs-the--Aigle-----Monarca-.jpg
Click image to view full size
Built as a wooden-hulled third rate by Edward Graves &Co, Frindsbury for the Royal Navy.
11 January 1782 ordered.
May 1782 keel laid down.
17 OCTOBER 1786 launched as HMS BELLEROPHON.
Tonnage 1,612 ton (bm), dim. 168.o x 46.10 x 19.9ft., length of keel 138.0ft.
Armament: Lower deck 28 – 32pdrs, upper deck 28 – 18pdrs, quarter deck 14 – 9pdrs, fo’c’sle 4 – 9pdrs. guns.
Crew 550.
Completed March 1787 for Ordinary at Chatham.

July 1790 commissioned under command of Capt. Thomas Pasley for the Spanish Armament (Nootka crisis) then Russian Armament.
September 1791 paid off, 26 April 1793 fitted out at Chatham
April 1794 under command of Capt. William Johnstone Hope. Bearing first the pendant and then the flag of Rear Ad. Thomas Pasley, commanding a division of Earl Howe's fleet in the West Indies.
On 28 May the French fleet was discovered to windward and in the evening BELLEROPHON brought the REVOLUTIONNAIRE (110), to action for an hour before any British ships could get up in support.
Disabled, she joined the main body of the fleet, and darkness put an end to the partial actions that had taken place. The following day, with the fleets drawn up in order of battle, BELLEROPHON, on the signal to break the enemy line, passed between the 5th. and 6th. ships in the enemy rear. She was accompanied by QUEEN CHARLOTTE and LEVIATHAN, the latter also crippled, with the rest of the British fleet passing to leeward.
When the French wore to succour their disabled vessels, Lord Howe was unable to frustrate them and finally, a thick fog prevented a renewal of the action.
01 June 1794 BELLEROPHON took part in the Battle of the Glorious First of June off Ushant and lost no more than 4 killed and 27 wounded during the long and bloody battle. Capt. Hope was awarded a gold medal.
Rear Ad. Pasley lost a leg and was made a baronet with a pension of 1,000 pounds per annum. He died in 1808, aged 75 years.
Capt. Hope continued to command BELLEROPHON until January 1795.
1795 under command of Capt. Lord Cranstoun.

On 30 May 1795 Vice Ad. CORNWALLIS sailed from Spithead to cruise off the Penmarks with a squadron of five sail of the line, BRUNSWICK, ROYAL SOVEREIGN, BELLEROPHON, TRIUMPH and MARS, and two frigates.
On the 8th. they chased eight small vessels into Palais Road, Belle Isle and blockaded them there.
On the 12th. a squadron sailed from Brest and formed a junction on the 15th. with Rear Ad. Vence off Groix.
When Cornwallis received news from PHAETON that an enemy force was in sight to leeward, he stood on towards them, assuming them to be frigates.
The French fleet now consisted of thirteen sail of the line, fourteen frigates, two brigs and a cutter, under the command of Vice Ad. Joyeuse, so, when he found that he was outnumbered 30 to 7, he immediately hauled off, hotly pursued by the enemy.
At first the Admiral led in ROYAL SOVEREIGN but with daylight he ordered BRUNSWICK and BELLEROPHON, both heavy sailors, to lead, with MARS and TRIUMPH forming the rear. The latter two, with the flagship, under easy sail, were constantly engaged with the French ships which kept up a long-range cannonade, but the former two were forced to throw anchors, launches and part of their ballast overboard to keep their place.
Cornwallis signalled PHAETON to send a boat and when the young Francis Beaumont (later Ad. Sir Francis Beaumont, Hydrographer to the Admiralty) climbed up the flagship's side he was met by the Admiral's foot in his face and ordered to return and tell his captain, Robert Stopford, to run ahead of the squadron and make signals for a fleet. Some 9 or 10 hours later PHAETON let fly her top-gallant sheets and fired a lee gun. She then used the tabular signals, of which the French had a copy, to announce that the approaching fleet was English and the Dutch ensign (the recall flag) to bring them into the squadron.
Some French officers said later that they were convinced that Lord Bridport's fleet was approaching but they continued to engage MARS until she was in such a disabled state that ROYAL SOVEREIGN had to wear out of line to protect her. The appearance of the three-decker was decisive and after a while, the French hauled to the wind and gave up the chase. On the 22nd they did come in sight of Lord Bridport's 17 sail of the line and were brought to action.

May 1796 Capt. J. Loring. October 1796 under command of Capt. Henry D'Esterre Darby, October 1796, Mediterranean.
On 7 June 1799 BELLEROPHON with nine other ships-of-the-line joined Rear Ad. Nelson off Toulon and five days later he steered for Corsica in search of the French fleet which had sailed from Toulon in May.
On 19 July, still without news, they put into Syracuse for freshwater.
The French were discovered near Alexandria on 1 August.
BELLEROPHON was ninth in line as they attacked the French in Aboukir Bay. She brought up by the stern close to the French admiral's ship, the ORIENT, and became exposed to that ships tremendous broadsides. Capt. Darby was wounded early in the action and forced to quit the deck, Lieut. Daniel was killed by the falling mainmast and command devolved on the 24-year-old Lieut. Robert Cathcart.
ORIENT caught fire and, after an hour, blew up. Only about seventy of her people were saved, mainly picked up by British boats. When the fire spread to BELLEROPHON Lieut. Cathcart cut her cable and, totally dismasted, she drifted some miles before being brought up with the kedge, her only anchor. She received a broadside from TONNANT and a few distant shots from HEUREUX as she drifted along the rear of the French line. Her losses were 49 killed and 148 wounded. By using wreckage floating around in Aboukir Bay for the construction of jury masts she was ready for action three days after the Battle.
At one point during the battle, when BELLEROPHON was standing out of action under her fore-sail and fore-top-sail, and with no lights displayed, she was mistaken for an enemy by SWIFTSURE.
Capt. Hallowell, being aware of the difficulty of breaking men off from the guns once they have begun to use them, refrained from firing into her, having decided to wait until he was anchored in his station.
BELLEROPHON went to Gibraltar for a refit. She returned to Portsmouth on 2 April 1800 and remained under quarantine for three days before being cleared.
Some 400 miles west of Lisbon she had met the ship REGULUS of London on 20 March and taken out of her Capt. Granger and Lieut. Tudor Tucker who were carrying dispatches from the Cape. She went into the harbour to paid off on the 16th.
1801 Under command of Capt. Lord Viscount Garlies (later Earl of Galloway). She sailed to join the Channel fleet on 21 August. BELLEROPHON was employed in the blockade of Brest until the end of hostilities.
November 1802 under command of Capt. J. Loring.
At the end of January, along with five other 74s BELLEROPHON was ordered to be victualled and stored for six months. The PRINCE OF WALES discharged all her spare provisions into BELLEROPHON and IRRESISTABLE.
They sailed with sealed orders from Torbay in February and on 7 March the fleet was becalmed off the Eddystone as they sailed to the westward. When the wind freshened they were clear of the land by sunset.
They arrived in the West Indies at the end of March and on 5 April BELLEROPHON and AUDACIOUS sailed from Martinique to Jamaica to join Vice Ad. Sir T. Duckworth with 15 sail-of-the line.
BELLEROPHON, GOLIATH and MAJESTIC overshot Plymouth in a gale on 12 September 1802 and finished up in Torbay as they returned from Jamaica after a passage of six weeks. They were paid off at Plymouth.
1803 Back in Jamaica with Rear Ad. Sir John Duckworth.
While in Jamaica she lost several officers and more than 100 of her crew from fever. The officers who died included Mr John Hewitt, Mr Maxwell, midshipman and Mr Young, surgeon.
July 1803 the squadron took 74 gun Le DUQUESNE.
On 9 September 1803, BELLEROPHON captured the American schooner LITTLE SARAH laden with coffee, and on 13 October she and the squadron took the American ship ELK.
BELLEROPHON was off Cape Francois in San Domingo in November 1803 when she received a communication from General Rochambeau who commanded the French forces besieged there by the black General Dessalines. He proposed to evacuate his four of five hundred men if they could be sent to France without being considered prisoners of war. This was rejected by Capt. LORING who sent Capt. Moss of DESIREE ashore. He found that the French general had entered into a prior capitulation with Dessalines to deliver up the Cape to him reckoning that the tremendous weather that the British squadron had been experiencing would offer an opportunity for escape.
On 23 November Lieut. Robert Pilch commanded the launches of BELLEROPHON and ELEPHANT at the capture of the French national schooner DECOUVERTE, armed with six long 6-pounders and six swivels, lying in the Caracol Passage near Cape Francois. In spite of being under fire from both great guns and small arms there were no British casualties. The French had two wounded.
On 30 November Capt. Loring sent Capt. Bligh to see Dessalines but, as he entered the harbour, the French Commodore Barre pressed him to go on board SURVEILLANTE and enter into a form of capitulation that would put the French under British protection and prevent the blacks from sinking them with red-hot shot. Capt. Bligh accepted their proposals with some small modifications and informed Dessalines that all the vessels in the harbour had surrendered to his Majesty. The French frigates La SURVEILLANTE. La CLORINDE and La VERTU and some smaller ships were at that time in the harbour.

As soon as the wind was favourable they sailed out under French colours but, on a shot being fired across them, the warships emptied their broadsides and lowered their colours. CLORINDE, a 38-gun frigate, took the ground and damaged her rudder. She was forced to throw most of her guns overboard before she was saved by Lieut. Willoughby and the boats of HERCULE.
Capt. Loring, after securing the prizes, left THESEUS and HERCULE to attend to CLORINDE.
The French ships were overcrowded and without provisions so he sailed with them to Jamaica, arriving on 5 December.
The schooner OLIVE BRANCH was recaptured by BELLEROPHON in the spring of 1804.
1805 Under command of Capt. John Cooke, Mediterranean.

BELLEROPHON was in Vice Ad. Collingwood’s Lee Division at the Battle of Trafalgar.
BELLEROPHON broke through the Spanish line under the stern of the MONARCA (74) and, while hauling up to engage her to leeward, she ran on board the French AIGLE in the smoke. The French ship being much higher and full of troops, BELLEROPHON suffered a lot of casualties from musket fire and, by depressing the guns on the main and lower decks, efforts were made to blow up the enemy's decks. Capt. Cooke was killed by a shot in the right breast while he was reloading his pistols and Lieut. William Price Cumby took over command. He fired several broadsides into AIGLE's stern as she fell of and then forced MONARCA to surrender. BELLEROPHON lost 27 officers and men killed and 123 wounded.
In the gales after the battle the badly damaged BELLEROPHON rolled so much that the wounded were suffering as they were thrown around. A midshipman, Mr Daniel Woodriff, nailed capstan bars along the deck of the captain's cabin to hold the beds until the wounded could be moved to the hospital in Gibraltar.
Capt. Edward Rotheram of ROYAL SOVEREIGN was appointed to succeed Capt. Cumby.
From December 1805 till February 1806 under repair at Plymouth
1806 Under command of Capt. Richard Thomas in the Channel Fleet were the BELLEROPHON was employed in the blockade of Brest.
In October 1807 the petty officers and crew of BELLEROPHON were turned over to the BEDFORD (74) so that she could sail for Lisbon. Later in year BELLEROPHON was the flagship of Rear Ad. Bertie at Plymouth.
1808 Capt. Samuel Warren, flagship of Rear Ad. Gardner off Vlissingen (Flushing), later in the Baltic.

The fleet left Gothenburg on 24 May and reached Karlskrona on 4 June. BELLEROPHON and MINOTAUR sailed for the Gulf of Finland where they were joined by the rest of the fleet on the 29th.
On 20 June BELLEROPHON, following a signal from MINOTAUR, discovered a lugger and two other vessels at anchor within the islands at Hango. Her boats under Lieut. Pilch took possession then abandoned them when they were found to be worthless. However they were found to be under the protection of four strong Russian batteries. To ensure a safe return to the ship, the nearest battery mounting four 24-pounders was attacked and the garrison of 103 men forced to retreat to the other side of the island where they escaped in boats. The guns were spiked and the magazine destroyed. BELLEROPHON lost five wounded. Lieuts. Sheridan and Bentham, the carpenter, Mr Mart, and Lieut. Carrington of the royal marines took part.
A flotilla of Russian ships under Percola Point at Aspo near Fredrikshamm was attacked by the boats of IMPLACABLE, BELLEROPHON, MELPOMENE and PROMETHEUS on the night of 7 July.
The enemy had taken up a position with two rocks to cover their wings from which they could pour a destructive fire of grape on the attackers. Nevertheless, out of 8 gunboats, each mounting a 32 and a 24-pounder with 46 men, six were brought out and one sunk. The 12 vessels laden with powder and provisions that they were protecting were also captured. Lieut. Hawke of IMPLACABLE, who led the attack, was killed by grape while boarding a second gunboat and his place was taken by Lieut. Charles Allen of BELLEROPHON who was promoted immediately after the action. Lieut. John Skekel commanded one of BELLEROPHON's boats. The four ships lost 17 killed and 37 wounded, two thirds of the Russians were killed, wounded or driven overboard.
1811 Capt. John Halsted, flagship of Rear Ad. John Ferrier, on the North Sea station.
1813 Capt. Edward Hawker, Vice Ad. Sir R. G. Keats, Spithead for Newfoundland.
While proceeding there in December she captured the French privateer GENIE of 16 guns and 73 men.
1814 Capt. F. W. Maitland.
In the Downs in the spring of 1815

After escaping from the field of Waterloo on 18 June Napoleon arrived in Rochefort on 3 July hoping to find a passport for the United States. On the 8th. he boarded the SAALE frigate.
Meanwhile the Royal Navy was searching for him. BELLEROPHON had been sent with a squadron to Quiberon Bay and on 10 July messengers from Napoleon arrived on board her to enquire about passports. Maitland informed them that there were none and that no French ships would be permitted to sail.
While the emissaries were still on board FALMOUTH arrived with orders that Napoleon should be brought to Torquay.
On 15 July Maitland, seeing Hotham's flagship SUPERB coming in, sent his barge to bring Napoleon on board BELLEROPHON.
BELLEROPHON reach Torbay on 24 July and two days later was ordered round to Plymouth where Ad. Keith came on board to inform Napoleon that he would now be addressed as General Bonaparte, and that no communication would be permitted with the shore. BELLEROPHON anchored off the breakwater and was surrounded by small craft packed with people hoping to catch a glimpse of the prisoner.
On 6 August BELLEROPHON, TONNANT, EUROTAS, NORTHUMBERLAND, CEYLON and BUCEPHALUS anchored off Berry Head. The following day Napoleon removed to NORTHUMBERLAND and BELLEROPHON took those of his staff who did not wish to follow him round to Spithead.

1816 Out of commission at Sheerness, and fitted out as convict hulk there.
05 October 1824 renamed CAPTIVITY were after was she fitted out for a voyage to Plymouth from April till June 1826.
Again in use as a convict hulk there till 1834.
21 January 1836 sold for £4,030 at Plymouth for scrapping.

http://www.ageofnelson.org/MichaelPhill ... p?ref=0302 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Bellerophon_(1786) British Warships in the Age of Sails 1793-1817 by Rif Winfield.
St Helene 2005 10p sg 939, Scott? (the ship on the right is the AIGLE and on the left of the BELLEROPHON is the Spanish MONARCA. who got a broadside in her stern from the BELLEROPHON as seen on stamp))
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