Peru issued one stamp in 2021 which shows us the landing of the liberating forces on 8 September 1820 in the Bay of Paracas, in the background some of the ships of the fleet, of which I have not any information. By the stamp is given by the Peru Post:
The Landing of the Liberation Expedition in Paracas occurred on September 8, 1820, marks the beginning of the stage Sanmartiniana in the process of the Independence of Peru.
Previously, on August 20, 1820, the then Captain General José de San Martín, Commander in Chief of the land and naval forces, departed from the port of Valparaíso, Chile, at the head of a squad composed of 32 ships between them, brigs, schooners, frigates, transports and gunboats, thanks to the important support of Bernardo O'Higgins, first Director of Government of Chile, recently released of the Spanish jail. Food, weapons, equipment, horses etc. were transported including of 4,200 troops, officers and soldiers, belonging to the armies of the Andes of the United Provinces of South America and Chile, including Peruvian volunteers who joined the Expedition. Vice Admiral Thomas Cochrane was in charge of the fleet. It is known that they were delayed several hours in lowering and transferring troops, ammunition, and artillery onshore.
The first group to disembark was the one from Transport No. 9, the Frigate DOLORES whose Commander was Juan Ermon. This group belonged to the 11th Infantry Battalion de Los Andes, which was commanded by Colonel Mayor Don Juan Gregorio de las Heras and his main function was the establishment of a beachhead, which would serve to provide security during the disembarkation of the rest of the expedition. The actions were to be carried out while the schooner MOCTEZUMA provided protection.
After the landing was completed, General José de San Martín begins his march towards the City of Pisco, the place where he would establish his first Headquarters, thus beginning the campaign of Peru.
San Martín had a printing company in charge of Bernardo Monteagudo, which publishing that day his first proclamation, declaring that September 8 is the First Day of the Freedom of Peru.
Later, knowing how important it was that the Peruvian people would feel identified with the emancipating cause, he creates in Pisco, on October 21, the first Peruvian flag, continuing their fight until the proclamation of Independence.
In that period the first skirmishes occurred, voluntary accessions between the local population and slaves escapees, as well as the first government actions.
For Peruvians, thanks to General José de San Martín not only lies in his contribution to the process of Independence but in the creation of the Peruvian State, the same as today, after 200 years it continues to work with the institutions that were created during the period of Protectorate, between the years 1821 and 1822. It is because of these facts that General José de San Martín receives the titles of «Founder of Independence» and «Protector of the Liberty of Peru, Generalissimo of Arms ».
The importance that the General de San Martín had for the creation of institutions that would provide a legal framework for the establishment of the new Republic was reflected in his works during the Protectorate. He is faithful convinced that the people had the right to be properly instructed, he creates the First Normal School for Men, found the Library of Lima, and dictates freedom of the press, among others important actions; in his words «a people without instruction is not a free people.
Respect for the law and institutions was another of his objectives, so he created the Peruvian Guard Legion (base of the Peruvian Army), the Navy, the High Chamber of Justice (Judicial Branch), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Prefecture of Lima, among other dependencies of the new State.
The Sanmartiniano Institute of Peru preserves in its museum, a large oil painting painted by the Peruvian artist Etna Velarde in 1978, which perfectly graphs the conditions of the historical fact of the landing in Paracas.
Written by Juan Augusto Fernandez Valle
President of the Board of Directors 2019-2021
SANMARTINIAN INSTITUTE OF PERU
Peru 2021 S/7.60 sg?, Scott?
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