PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689


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Postby shipstamps » Thu Nov 27, 2008 3:34 pm

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Built as an aircraft carrier of Project 1143.5 by Chernomorsky Sudostroitelni Zavod yard in Nikolayev (South), Ukraine for the Soviet Navy.
22 February 1983 laid down. Her intended name was RIGA but when the political satiation changed she was renamed in 1982 in LEONID BREZHNEV
05 December 1985 launched as the LEONID BREZHNEV.
Displacement 46.600 tons standard, 59.400 tons full load, dim. 304.5 x 67 x 11m. (draught).
Powered by four steam turbines delivering 200.000 shp., four shafts, speed 29 knots.
Armament: 12 cell VLS for P-700 ‘Granit’ (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) SSMs. 24 Eight round Kinshal (SA-N-9 Gauntlet) vertical SAM launchers with 192 missiles. 8 Combined gun/missiles close air defence systems with 8 twin 30-mm Gatling guns and Klinok (SA-N-11 Grison) missiles. Two RPK-5 (UDAV-1) ASW rock3et systems with 60 rockets.
Carried up to 41 aircraft, and numerous helicopters for anti-submarine warfare (ASW).
Crew: 2.626 including air personnel and 40 flag staff.
After Brezhnev fell in disfavour in 1987, the name was changed to TBILISI.
October 1990 the name was changed to ADMIRAL FLOTA SOVETSKOGO SOYUZA KUZNETSOV, but mostly shortened to ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV.
21 January 1991 commissioned.

December 1991 left the Black Sea to join the Northern Fleet
1995 Was she operational.
1996 she made a short Mediterranean training cruise.
1997 out of commission for overhaul on the Northern Fleet shipyard, but lack of funding kept her in the yard till July 1998.
3 November 1998 she returned to active service.
Late 2000 took part in the rescue operation of the lost submarine KURSK.
She is mostly tied up alongside in the naval base of the Northern Fleet due to technical and financially problems.

11 December 2007 she passed through international waters off the Norway coast, and she was launching aircraft and helicopters, then she proceeded to the Mediterranean for fleet manoeuvres with 11 other Russian warships.

She is the only Russian aircraft carrier, did have a sister the VARYAG, but she was sold unfinished to China.

Ukraine 2004 3.50 U.A.H. sg?, scott 535c.

Source: Wikipedia. The Encyclopadia of Warships.
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Postby aukepalmhof » Tue Apr 16, 2013 9:02 pm

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1996 admiral kuznetsov envelope.jpg
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2003 admiral kuznetsov aircraft carrier.jpg
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2003 admiral kuznetsov.jpg
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2008 admiral kuznetsov.jpg
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1996 admiral kuznetsov ss.JPG
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1996 admiral kuznetsov.jpg
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Russia 2001 on border of the sheet.
On the margins of the souvenir sheet are represented (above): a naval pennant with memorials "1701-2001" and flags of naval educational institutions of Russia of various epochs. Below on the right in the foreground there is a heavy cruiser (wrong she is a aircraft carrier) "ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV "; below there is a tape as a pennant on which the following words are given: "training", "reclamation", "application".

Guyana 2013 $700 sg?, scott?
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Postby aukepalmhof » Mon Jan 20, 2014 3:12 am

2013 Admiral Kuznetsov.jpg
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2011 jialong ms.JPG
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This miniature sheet of Mozambique issued in 2011 gives that depict is the first Chinese aircraft carrier but on the hull you can see the Russian Red Star and the pennant No 063 which belong to her sister the ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV
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