PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689

ADMIRAL MAKAROV cruiser 1908

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ADMIRAL MAKAROV cruiser 1908

Postby shipstamps » Mon Sep 22, 2008 10:43 pm

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The Soviet Union in 1978 issued a stamp of 6k to remember the earthquake at Messina, Sicily, Italy in 1908, and the help the Imperial Russian Fleet was given to the victims of this quake. Four Russian warships are depict, and in the foreground a monument. The ships depict are the ADMIRAL MAKAROV, SLAVA, TSESAREVICH and BOGATYR.

When the earthquake hit the town of Messina killing 148.000 people, the Russian training squadron under command of Rear-Admiral Vladimir Ivanovich Litvinov was at Augusta, Sicily, Italy.
When Litvinov heard of the tragedy, he ordered the ADMIRAL MAKAROV, SLAVA and TSESAREVICH to proceed full speed to Messina for the rescue operations. The BOGATYR stayed behind to provide radio communications between Calabria and Sicily.
On arrival off Messina, Russian officers and sailors landed to help in the rescue operations.

Built as armoured cruiser by Compagnie des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée, for the Imperial Russian Navy.
03 April 1905 keel laid down.
09 May 1906 launched under the name ADMIRAL MAKAROV, named after Admiral Stepan Makarov, one of the Bayan class, three sisters.
Displacement 7.775 tons, dim. 137.0 x 17.5 x 6.7m. (draught).
Powered by vertical triple expansion steam engines, 19.000 ihp., speed 22.5 knots, during trials.
Bunker capacity 1.100 ton coal maximum.
Range: 3.900 mile by a speed of 10 knots.
Armament 2 – 8 inch, 8 – 6 inch, 20 – 11 pdr., 4 – 6pdr. guns and 2 – 18 inch torpedo tubes.
Later added 2 – 11pdr. and 2 – 3pdr AA guns. Also fitted out for mine layers, could carry 150 mines.
Crew 573.
April 1908 completed.

She served in the Baltic Fleet mostly as a training vessel for young men.
1908 During a cruise with the Russian Fleet training squadron she was at Augusta, Italy when in the night of 28 December 1908 a heavy earthquake struck the town of Messina, flattening almost the whole city.
After arrival 550 survivors were taken on board the ADMIRAL MAKAROV where after she sailed to Napoli to disembark the people.
At Napoli she took on board medicines and food for the victims at Messina, sailing noon 1 January 1909.
After arrival in Messina she got an other load of victims departing again for Napoli.
The four Russian ships stayed off Messina till the rescue operation was completed.

Autumn 1917 during World War I, she took part in the Battle of Moon Sound.
When the German troops invaded the Baltic states, the Russian Baltic fleet moved out of there basis in Tallinn, and with the help of icebreakers she were moved through the thick ice to Kronstadt, one of this ships was the ADMIRAL MARAKOV who safely arrived there.

1918 Out of service.
1922 Sold to German breakers and broken up in Stettin.

Source: Conway’s All the World’s fighting ships 1860-1905. Some web-sites.
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