PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689

Coventry HMS

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Coventry HMS

Postby shipstamps » Fri Sep 05, 2008 7:44 am

HMS Coventry.jpg
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Built as an anti submarine frigate by Swan Hunter, Tyne for the Royal Navy.
29 March 1984 laid down.
08 April 1986 launched under the name HMS COVENTRY (F98), one of the Batch 2 Type 22 Broadsword Class frigate. She was launched by the management of Swan Hunter at 3am on 8 April 1986 in order to avoid an industrial dispute. The naming ceremony was held the next day.
Displacement 4.100 tons standard, 4.800 tons full load. Dim. 485.55 x 48.35 x 21ft. (draught full load).
Powered by GOGOG 2 x Rolls-Royce TM3B Olympus gas turbines 25.000 shp. each, 2 x Rolls Royce RM1A Tyne gas turbines. Speed 30 knots. Bunker capacity 900 tons.
Armament GWS 25 Seawolf SAM system (2 x 6). GWS50 Exocet SSM system (4 x 1). 2 – 40mm guns.2 – 3 ASTT, STWS-2.
Two Lynx HAS2 helicopters.
Crew 273. 14 October 1988 commissioned.
Joined the Sixth Frigate Squadron after completion and based at Devonport. She was used in a wide range of rolls. Did see service in the Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Middle East.
Her last deployment was to the Caribbean
3 September 2001 a helicopter from the HMS COVENTRY assisted in the seizure of £40 million worth of cocaine in a combined operation with the Brazilian authorities after a dramatic chase through islands and swamps off the coast of Belize
Her last voyage steamed she 24,500 miles.
21 Jan. 2002 decommissioned at Devonport. At that time she had steamed more than 425.000 miles.
It was the first COVENTRY what was paid off, all the previous COVENTRY’s were lost at sea in battle.
09 September 2004 commissioned in the Romanian Navy at Portsmouth, renamed REGELE FERDINAND (F221).
After she was decommissioned was she sold to Romania., Her Seawolf missiles launchers and trackers were removed, leaving her without any missile system. A new missile system will be added at a Romanian shipyard, and after a major upgrade on 20 July 2004 she made trials designed to demonstrate to the 40 Romanian representatives on board that all the systems were in good working order.
After her upgrade she need a crew of 203.
2008 Still in service.
Auke Palmhof
Source; Royal Navy Frigates since 1945 by Leo Marriott. Marine News 2001/652.

Ships Monthly Nov. 2004. Some web-sites.
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