PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689

Howick Hall

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Howick Hall

Postby shipstamps » Wed Sep 03, 2008 4:38 pm

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Not only was the Howick Hall a fine example of the pre-war cargo liner but her owners, Chas. G. Dunn & Co. Ltd., of Liverpool, were determined that she should appear so. Their most ambitious ship yet, she was designed for the U.S.—Latin American trade, on which she had to compete with ships of companies both larger and longer-established. As built, the Howick Hall had a gross tonnage of 4,923 (later increased to 5,096) and a d.w. capacity of 8,079 tons. Her overall length was 413 ft (400 ft b.p.), breadth mld 51.5 ft, depth mld 29.7 ft and load draught just under 26 ft. Her hull had two continuous decks and, above these, a long combined bridge and forecastle and a short poop, which resulted in the rather unusual small well deck aft. Thoroughly up-to-date in design, she was one of the first cargo liners to have longitudinal framing and her derricks included one capable of 35-ton lifts.
A ship without sisters, she was launched by Wm. Hamilton & Co. Ltd., Port Glasgow, on 1 October, 1910, and given a single set of triple-expansion engines supplied by David Rowan & Co., Glasgow. She had four S.E. boilers with a working pressure of 180 lb and bunker capacity for 8oo tons of coal. Her speed was about 10 knots. On completion she sailed direct for the States, to enter service on the New York and South America Line, of which Dunn's were the managers.
Under the Stars and Stripes the Howick Hall retained her grey hull but was given plain buff funnels. This ended in October 1929 when she was sold to a London firm who renamed her Dovenden. Active service as such was minimal, for she spent most of 1930 laid up at New York, a collision there hardly helping matters. By October she had crossed the Atlantic to Rotterdam, where she became a near-permanent feature. Sale to another London concern late in 1932 was followed by continued idleness. In January 1935 she was sold for £7,500, reputedly to be broken up. However, as with various other Italian purchases made then, demolition did not follow. Instead, her new owners,
Ditta Luigi Pittaluga Vapori, Genoa, put her back into service as the Ircania. In 1937 she changed hands yet again, this time locally. The Pittaluga funnel mark—a white band on black—then gave way to the green, white and red bands of the S.A. Co-operativa di Nay. `Garibaldi'. This was at the time of the Abyssinian war and the Ircania was one of the many ships used to carry Italian military supplies to Massowah. In 1941 she was lying at Jacksonville when she and other Axis ships then in American ports were taken over by the U.S. Government. Recommissioned as the Panamanian flag Raceland, she was bombed and sunk south of Bear Island in March 1942. SG3474
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