PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689

ADELAIDE paddle steamer

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ADELAIDE paddle steamer

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Sep 06, 2009 8:37 pm

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Built as a composite paddle steamer by G.Linklater at Echuca for J.G. Grasse, Poon Boon Station and S & H Officer, Murray Downs Station.
27 June 1866 launched under the name ADELAIDE. (the web-site gives launched 28 July 1866.)
Tonnage 142 gross, 114 net., dim. 75.9 x 17.0 x 5.0ft.
One 2 cyl steam engine 36 hp. manufactured by Fulton & Shaw at Melbourne.
Registered at Sydney.

She was built to service their Poon Boon and Murray Downs cattle stations.
1870 Her tonnage given as 105 gross, 77 net.
July 1872 sold to D. Blair & Ceo. McGrowther, sawmillers at Echuca, and used for the transport and towing of barges loaded with red gum logs for the mill.
June 1891 sold to Murray River Saw Mill Co., and registered at Melbourne.
July 1926 sold to McCulloch Carrying Co. Ltd.
1959 Sold to A.Rowe, sawmiller at Paringa, S.A. who intended to convert her to a stern wheel motor powered barge, but sold her before this was accomplished.
1960 Echuca Apex Club bought her and steamed her to Echuca.
Installed in a bed of cement in Hopwood Gardens, Echuca in November 1963. She sat there for about 20 years as a museum piece.
1982 Hull restoration work commenced, and after completion she was dragged down river on a log sled and then launched in the Murray River at 5.15pm on 4 March 1984.
Further restoration work took place when she was moored alongside the wharf.
29 October 1985 ADELAIDE was recommissioned by the late Princess Dianna and Prince Charles.
There after used for special cruises for enthusiasts from the Echuca Vic wharf.
She is the third oldest existing paddle steamer in the world; the SKIBLADNER 1856 and HJEJLEN 1861 are older.

Australia 2003 50c sg?, scott?

Ships of the Inland Rivers by Ronald Parsons. ... laide.html
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