PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689


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Postby shipstamps » Sun Aug 10, 2008 7:11 am

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Admiral Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and his sloop Vostok are depicted on the 20c. stamp, which I notice gives his name as "Admiral T. Bellingshausen". Incidentally he is named "Thaddeus" on stamps of British Antarctic Territory issued in 1973 and if there is an explanation for the change of name, I am, not aware of it. He was a Russian Navy officer born in 1779, joining his country's navy in 1797 and taking part in a voyage around the world in 1803, when he was 24. In 1819 he was placed in command of a Russian expedition to explore the Antarctic. He had under his command two sloops of war, the Vostok and Mirny, with 190 men. His first objective was to complete a survey of South Georgia, which was begun by Captain Cook. The Vostok was the flagship of the expedition. She was 129 ft. 10 in. in length, with a beam of 32 ft. 8 in. and draft of 9 ft. 7 in., built at the Okhta Dockyard, St. Petersburg, by Stoke, in 1818. Like other Russian ships of the period she was built of unseasoned pinewood with only the usual strengthening. The underwater part of the ship had been reinforced and it was protected by copper sheathing on the outside. She was a sister ship to the Kamchatka which under Capt. Colovnin sailed round the world in 1817.
Info EW Argyle SB8/77.
Gilbert Islands SG53, Brit Ant SG65 Kiribati SG260 Russia SG1648 3202 3788
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Re: Vostok

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Jan 31, 2010 2:56 am

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1986 SG-260 è¿a¿íáG¿ é«ßG«¬ Only this stamp.jpg
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2015 South Georgia.JPG
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The £3 stamp features Fabian von Bellingshausen leader of the Russian Naval Expedition and the expedition vessel VOSTOK. The expedition had two vessels, the sloop VOSTOK and the transport MIRNYY and the objective was to sail as close to the South Pole as possible. They reached South Georgia in 1819 on their way to Antarctica and surveyed the south coast to complement Cook’s survey of the northern coast. The South Sandwich Islands were also visited and more islands discovered. Bellingshausen then proceeded to circumnavigate Antarctica and is credited with making the first sighting of mainland Antarctica. The expedition is remembered in a number of Russian place names in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

Source: South Georgia Post.

Kiribati 1986 55c sg260, scott?. 2002 25c sg?, scott?
Mongolia 2012 800f sg?, scott?
Russia 2001 2.00R sg?, scott? (VOSTOCK and MIRNIY)
South Georgia & Sandwich Islands 2015 £3.00 sg?, scott?
Last edited by aukepalmhof on Fri Mar 20, 2015 3:23 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Vostok

Postby Arturo » Sun Apr 27, 2014 9:17 am

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Estonia, 2003, S.G.?, Scott; 463.
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Re: Vostok

Postby Anatol » Mon Dec 24, 2018 9:46 pm

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Russian navigator FF Bellingsgausen (1778-1852) Russia1950;40к;SG1647; 1978; 4k.Postcard.
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