PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689


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Postby aukepalmhof » Mon Apr 15, 2019 8:46 pm

alexander von Humboldt II.jpg
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2013 alexander von humbolt II (2).jpg
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2019 alexander von humboldt.jpg
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Built as a steel hulled three mast sail training barque under yard no 4 by Brenn-und Verformtechnik (BVT) at Bremen for the Deutsche Stiftung Sail Training in Bremerhaven.
11 December 2008 laid down.
27 May 2011 launched as the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT II
Tonnage 763 grt, 288 net, 820 dwt, displacement 992 ton, dim. 65.1 x 10.0 x 4.7m. (draught), length bpp.47.4m.
Auxiliary engine, one Volvo Penta D16, 715 hp, speed ?
Sail area 14,600 sq.ft. Speed under sail?
Passengers by day trip 120, and by longer cruises 60, crew 79.
07 October 2011 completed, homeport Bremerhaven, IMO No 9618446.
Worldwide trading.

ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT II is a German sailing ship built as a replacement for the ship ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT, which had been launched in 1906 and used for sail training since 1988. Constructed by Brenn- und Verformtechnik (BVT) in Bremen, the new ship was launched in 2011.
Just like her predecessor, the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT II is operated by Deutsche Stiftung Sail Training in Bremerhaven which offers sail training for people between 14 and 75 years of age.

2019 In service.
St Tome et Principe 2013 DB 25000 sg?, scott?
Sierra Leone 2019 LE12500 sg?, scott?
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