PENTECONTER Greek galley

The vessel depicted on this stamp I could not find a drawing of her on the internet, but she was given as a 600 BC used Greek cargo galley. On the stamp is depict a one row vessel with a ram bow. At that time the Greeks used a penteconter Greek galley for war, piracy and transport.

The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, pentekontoros "fifty-oared"),plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was also used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece.
The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships. They were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in a row of twenty-five on each side of the ship. A midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels (νῆες μακραί, nḗes markaí ). They typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels (ἄφρακτοι νῆες, áphraktoi nḗes).

Homer describes war ships during the Trojan War of various numbers of oars varying from twenty-oared, such as the ship that brought Chryseis back to her father, to fifty-oared, as Odysseus’ ship that had fifty men and as many as 120 men of the Boeotian ships.

According to some contemporary calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m (92 and 108 ft) long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). However, modern reconstructions of penteconters, as well as other ancient ship designs such as triremes, manned by modern untrained amateurs, attained that top speed fairly easily on initial sea trials, which implies that the top speed of that type of ship in the ancient era had to be substantially higher. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor (τριακόντορος triakontoros), a shorter version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is a general agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity, evolved from the penteconter via the bireme. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians.

Libya 1983 100dh sg 1304, scott
Vietnam 1986 3d sg 991, scott1689


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Postby aukepalmhof » Thu May 30, 2019 8:34 pm

1999 terracotta model.jpg
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1999 ghurab model .jpg
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In 1999 India issued two stamps of 3.00R to commemorate the National Maritime Day.

The stamp with the terracotta model of a sailboat was excavated from Lothal. The stamp gives the year 2200 BC and shows us two ships, one an inland vessel superimposed on an Indus seal. The vessel under sail is a seagoing vessel.
The terracotta models of a boat from Lothal and engravings on Indus seals give some idea of ships going to the sea. For inland waterways, flat-bottom boats of the type suggested by the terracotta models were used. Trade on the high seas and along the coast was possible because the ships were fitted with sails ... episode-04

The other stamp shows us a “ghurab” a frigate in service by the Indian Maratha Navy. The stamp is designed after a painting from ca 1700.
The biggest naval ships were the ghurabs, usually with two and occasionally three masts. They ranged from 150 to 300 tons and there were always one or two ghurabs of about 40 tons. The ghurab can be compared to the British and Portuguese frigates of those days, bearing in mind that neither the ghurab nor any of the other Maratha naval ships were anywhere near as seaworthy as their European counterparts. As their main armaments, the ghurabs carried two big guns firing forward through their portholes cut in the bulkhead. These were from the nine to twelve-pounder guns. There were also twelve to sixteen other guns, from six to eight on each side, which fired shots of from six to nine pounds. Each ghurab carried 100-150 fighting men in addition to the crew.

Extended low bow with a straight stem, high poop ended in a square counter. Flush decked; foredeck not fixed to the sides to permit drainage in head seas. Inboard rudder. The three-masted vessels as seen on the stamp were rigged in the European manner with square sails on the forward 2 masts and a gaff mizzen.
Sweeps used in calms, employing as many as 50, with one man per sweep.
The vessel did have a light draught. ... e-a-study/ Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the Worlds’s Watercraft.
India 1999 300R sg?, scott
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