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LORRAINE battleship 1916

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LORRAINE battleship 1916

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Dec 15, 2019 7:21 pm

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The battleship "LORRAINE" was one of the oldest vessels in the French Navy, being built at the St. Nazaire yards during the 1914-18 war. On the stamp, she is behind the EMILE BERTIN.

07 November 1912 laid down under yard No 67.
30 September 1913 launched as the LORRAINE.
Displacement 23,230 tons, full load 25,000 ton, dim. 166 x 26.9 x 9.8m. (draught), length bpp 164.9m.
Powered by four Parsons steam turbines, 29,000 shp, four propellers, speed 20 knots.
Range by a speed of 10 knots, 4,700 miles.
Armament 5 – 2 -340mm/45 Modéle 1912 guns, 27 – 1 – 138.6mm Mle 1910 guns, 7 – 1- 47 mm and 4 – 450mm torpedo tubes.
Crew 1124-1133.
10 March 1916 commissioned.
01 July 1916 completed.

LORRAINE was ordered on 15 July 1912, as a replacement for the battleship LIBÉRTE , which had been destroyed by a magazine explosion the previous year. She was laid down at the Chantiers de Penhoët shipyard in Saint-Nazaire on 1 August 1912 and launched on 30 September 1913. She was commissioned into the French Navy on 10 March 1916.[4] After entering service in 1916, LORRAINE and her sisters were assigned to the 1st Division of the 1st Battle Squadron. The three ships remained in the unit for the remainder of the war They spent the majority of their time at Corfu to prevent the Austro-Hungarian fleet from attempting to break out of the Adriatic. The fleet's presence was also intended to intimidate Greece, which had become increasingly hostile to the Triple Entente. Later in the war, men were drawn from their crews for anti-submarine warfare vessels. As the Austro-Hungarians largely remained in port for the duration of the war, LORRAINE saw no action during the conflict. In 1917, she returned to Toulon for a periodic refit, but apart from that voyage, she saw no time at sea for the rest of the year.
In January 1919, she went to Cattaro, where she guarded the former Austro-Hungarian Navy. She assisted in repatriating Austrian naval personnel, and escorted former Austro-Hungarian warships to France and Italy; this duty lasted until March. The French Navy intended to send LORRAINE and her sister PROVENCE to the Black Sea to join operations against the Bolsheviks, but a major mutiny prevented the operation. The two ships went to Constantinople in October 1919, where they formed the core of the Eastern Mediterranean Squadron, which operated until July 1921. LORRAINE underwent her first refit starting on 10 November 1921, which lasted until 4 December 1922. After emerging from refit, LORRAINE was placed in reserve, due to financial limitations in the post-war French Navy. She returned to service the following year—1923—with the 1st Battleship Division of the Mediterranean Fleet.

LORRAINE was modernized a second time between 15 November 1924 and 4 August 1926. A third refit followed on 17 September 1929 and lasted until 6 June 1931. During these periods in the dock, the range of the main battery was increased, the anti-aircraft battery was strengthened, and her boilers were replaced with newer, oil-fired models. Between 18 September 1934 and 20 September 1935, a fourth and final pre-war refit was carried out in Brest; LORRAINE's amidships turret was removed, and an aircraft catapult along with a hangar for three aircraft were installed. The aircraft was initially Gourdou-Leseurre GL819 and Potez 452 seaplanes, though they were later replaced with Loire 130 flying boats. In 1936, LORRAINE was transferred to the Atlantic Squadron, where she remained until the outbreak of World War II in September 1939.

World War II
After the start of World War II, LORRAINE served primarily in the western Mediterranean as the flagship of Force X, under Vice-Admiral Godfroy. On 4 December, LORRAINE operated out of Casablanca against German surface forces, along with the cruisers ALGÉRIE, La GALISSONNIÉRE and MARSEILLAISE, and several destroyers and submarines. During this period, she carried a shipment of gold bullion from the French treasury to Bermuda. On 1 January 1940, she was transferred to the 2nd Battleship Division of the 1st Squadron and went into drydock for refit, which lasted until April.
On 27 April, LORRAINE and her two sisters were transferred to Alexandria. On 10 June, Italy declared war on France; by that time, both BRETANGE and PROVENCE had moved back to the western Mediterranean. LORRAINE was the only French capital ship in the eastern Mediterranean, though she was joined by four British battleships and an aircraft carrier. On the night of 20–21 June, LORRAINE formed the center of an Anglo-French task force, with the cruisers HMS NEPTUNE ORION and ACHILLES, for a bombardment of Italian positions at Bardia. The operation, which caused only minimal damage, was the last combined British and French naval operation before the French surrender.

Following the French surrender, the French commander, Vice Admiral Godfroy, concluded an agreement with Admiral Andrew Cunningham to demilitarize and intern the French ships in Alexandria; this included LORRAINE, four cruisers, and three destroyers.[14] In December 1942, the ship's crew decided to join the Allies in the Free French Naval Forces, and so LORRAINE was placed back into service. On 3 July 1943, the ship left the Suez and sailed around Africa to Dakar, stopping in Cape Town on the way. After arriving on 12 October, she was used briefly as a training ship; on 2 December, LORRAINE was sent to Oran for refitting. The work included removing the aircraft facilities and installing a large number of anti-aircraft guns, including eight 75 mm (3.0 in) guns, fourteen 40 mm (1.6 in) guns, and twenty-five 20 mm (0.79 in) guns. Radar equipment was also installed on the ship.
The overhaul readied LORRAINE to participate in Operation Dragoon, the Allied invasion of southern France in August 1944. On 15 August, LORRAINE joined the bombardment force, Task Force 86, that supported landings.[ She and the American battleship USS NEVADA hammered German defenses in and around Toulon, including 340 mm coastal guns that had been removed from PROVENCE The bombardment lasted until 21 August. Over the course of 1–13 September, LORRAINE, four cruisers, and two destroyers shelled German defenses throughout the French Riviera. Among the targets, LORRAINE attacked were fortresses at Sospel and Castillon, along with Axis positions around Carqueiranne and Saint-Tropez. LORRAINE left the bombardment area on 17 September but remained in the western Mediterranean until she was sent to Portsmouth for a brief refit toward the end of the year. She was then sent to Cherbourg in December.
In late March 1945, LORRAINE left Cherbourg to participate in her final wartime operations, codenamed Vénérable and Vermeille. In the operations, which took place in April, the French Navy focused on eliminating a pocket of German resistance in Gironde. On 14–20 April, LORRAINE and several cruisers and destroyers bombarded the German "Girond-Nord" fortress in Royan in support of an attack by the French 10th Division and American 66th Division; the German defenders surrendered on the 20th. After completing the operation, LORRAINE returned to Brest before being sent to Toulon. Starting in February 1947, she was used as a stationary gunnery training ship. Later, she was used as a barracks ship, until she was stricken from the naval register on 17 February 1953. She was sold on 18 December, to a French shipbreaking company, and towed to Brégaillon outside Toulon in January 1954 and broken up for scrap. ... p_Lorraine
France 1946 2f + 3F sg 965, scott?
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