LION HMS 1778

Built as a 3th Rate ship-of-the-line by the Portsmouth Drydock for the Royal Navy.
12 October 1768 ordered.
May 1769 keel laid down.
03 September 1777 launched under the name HMS LION.
Tonnage 1.377 ton, dim. 159.0 x 44.8 x 19.0ft.
Armament: Lower deck 26 – 24pdrs., upper deck 26 – 18pdrs., quarter deck 10 – 9 pdrs., forecastle 2 – 9pdrs. (1794 increased with 2 – 24pdrs. carronades), poopdeck from 1794, 6 – 18pdrs..
Crew 500.
07 September 1778 completed.

May 1778 commissioned.
06 July 1779 she fought in the Battle of Grenada under command of Capt. William Cornwallis, she was badly damaged, and forced to run down winds to Jamaica, she stayed the next year on the Jamaica station.
March 1780 she came in action with two other Royal Navy ships to a larger French force off San Domingo, while a second action took place off Bermuda in June 1780 with a French force carrying the troops of Rochambeau to North America. The British squadron was not strong enough, and the French squadron did not seek the confrontation and pressed on. Most probably the LION and her squadron were homeward bound.
December 1780 till January 1781 refitted and coppered at Portsmouth.
August 1783 after the war she paid off.
Under repair from February till September 1787 at Portsmouth.
June 1790 re-commissioned under Capt. Seymour Finch, for the Spanish.
September 1791 paid off.
Again fitted out at Portsmouth from March till July 1792.
May 1792 re-commissioned under command of Sir Erasmus Gower.
26 September 1792 she sailed out from Spithead with on board Lord Mccartney’s with his suite of 100 beside soldiers and servants for the court at Peking as ambassador to the Chinese Emperor Tchien Lung. With her was the tender HMS JACKALL and the East Indiaman HINDUSTAN.
The JACKALL lost contact in a gale off Portland on 28th September and made the voyage independently till she made again contact on 23 March 1793.
On her passage from Batavia to North Island (where is that?) she struck a knoll, but got not much damage.
October 1794 after her return paid off at Chatham, got a refit there till April 1795.

February 1795 re-commissioned under command of Capt.George Palmer, for the North Sea station.
Command was later taken over by Capt. Henry Inman.
1796 Command taken over by Capt. Edmund Crawley her crew took part in the Noire mutiny in 1797.
July 1797 command taken over by Charles Cobb, and in September 1797 under command of Capt. Manley Dixon.
02 June 1798 sailed for the Mediterranean, took part in the blockade of Malta 1798 –1800.
15 July 1798 came in action against the Spanish frigates SANTA CAZILDA (34-guns), POMONA, PROSERPINE, and SANTA DOROTEA off Cartagena, the SANTA DOROTEA armed with 42 guns and a crew of 370 was captured. The LION had only 2 men wounded.
08 April under command of Capt. Lord William Stuart till July when command was taken over by Capt George Hammond.
30 August 1800 together with the PENELOPE and FOUDROYANT took the French Le GUILLAUME TELL off Malta. During this action she lost 8 men and got 38 wounded.
November 1800 paid off at Chatham, got a refit there from February till May 1801.
March 1801 re-commissioned under command of Capt. Henry Mitford.
19 May 1801 sailed together with a convoy of East Indiamen from Portsmouth for China.
1803 After her return in reserve at Chatham.
Under repair by John Dudman at Deptford from December 1804 till December 1805.
December 1805 under command of Robert Rolles, and January 1805 re-commissioned.
May 1806 sailed for the East Indies, convoyed home some East Indiamen. After her return in the Channel Fleet.
27 December 1807 took the privateer La RÉCIPROCITÉ (14-guns) which had sailed from Dieppe off Beachy Head.
February 1808 under command of Capt. Henry Heathcote, 05 March 1808 she sailed for China.
18 July 1810 sailed again for the East Indies.
July 1811 at reduction at Java.
1812 Flagship of Vice Admiral Robert Stopford at the Cape of Good Hope.
From 1812 till 1813 under difference captains flagship of Rear Admiral Charles Tyler at the Cape.
August 1814 fitted out as a sheer hulk at Plymouth.
September 1816 moved to Sheerness.
30 November 1837 sold to John Levy & Son at Chatham for £2.300 for breaking up.

She is one of the two-deckers depict on the stamp.

Source: http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk British Warships in the age of Sail 1793 – 1817 by Rif Winfield.
Malta 2006 29c sg?, scott?

Rakit-raft of Malaysia

Rakit- term for a raft of logs or bamboo poles in Indonesia and Malaysia: . Used on rivers to transport produce and timber, or in quiet waters as a houseboat. Materials lashed together with bark or wood-fiber ropes. Bamboo rafts have thicker ends at the bow, tapering toward the stern; square at bow with a long, wooden peg run athwartships through holes in the poles. When carrying a heavy load, 2-3 layers of poles may be bound together.Poles along the sides serve as gunwales; a raised platform covered with palm thatching provides a shelter.Often poled from the bow and stern, supplemented by paddlers. Length may exceed 13m.
Malaysia 2016;3,0RM.
Source: . A Dictionary of the world’s Watercraft from Aak to Zumbra.

PENELOPE HMS 1798

Built as a frigate by George Parsons, Bursledon for the Royal Navy.
04 May 1797 ordered.
June 1797 keel laid down.
26 September 1798 launched under the name HMS PENELOPE.
Tonnage 1.051 ton (bm), dim. 150.0 x 39.8 x 13.0ft.
Armament: 30 – 18pdrs., quarter deck 6 – 9pdrs. and 8 –32pdrs. carronades, forecastle 2 – 9pdrs. and 4 – 32pdr carronades.
Crew 294.
From 30 September till 30 November 1798 at Portsmouth fitted out and completed.
Building cost £36.988.

October 1798 commissioned under command of Capt. Charles Paget.
03 January 1799 sailed for Madeira with an East Indies convoy.
March 1799 command was taken over by Capt. Henry Blackwood.
05 September 1799 sailed for the Mediterranean.
26 January 1800 she took the Spanish xebec NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL CARMEN (16-gun) under command of Don Estevanno Barcello and a crew of 130 men.
She was part of a squadron, which blockaded Malta, and when the French GUILLAUME TELL escaped from Malta in the night of 29 March 1800 the HMS PENELOPE sighted her.

The following comes from the logbook of the PENELOPE on the capture of this ship.

Luffed under her stern, and gave him the larboard broadside, bore up under the larbour quarter and gave him the starboard broadside, receiving from him only his stern-chase guns. From this hour till daylight, finding that we could place ourselves on either quarter, the action continued in the foregoing manner, and with such success on our side that, when day broke, the GUILLAUME TELL was found in a most dismantled state.

At 05.00 am the HMS LION arrived and a little later the HMS FOUDROYANT and after a gallant resistance in which she totally was dismasted, the GUILLAUME TELL struck her flag.

The PENELOPE lost 2 men in the fight and had 2 wounded.
She towed her prize to Syracuse after she returned to her station off Malta, till this island surrendered on 05 September 1800.
Then she accompanied Lord Keith in his campaign against the French in Egypt, before she set sail for home, where she arrived on 19 March 1802 at Spithead.
May 1802 under command of Capt. William Broughton.
August 1802 sailed for the Mediterranean, later in 1803 under command of temporally Capt. Charles Pater in Lord Keith squadron in the North Sea.
May 1804 took part in the attack on Ver Huell’s convoy off the Belgian coast in support of the cruiser RATTLER and AIMABLE. She got 3 men killed and 4 wounded.
26 August 1806 took part in the chase of the French Le VÉTÉRAN near Belle Isl. off the French coast.
1807 Under command of Capt. John Dick in the Channel Fleet.
13 February 1808 sailed for Halifax.
Early 1809 took part in the blockade of Guadeloupe and capture of Martinique.
September 1810 paid off at Plymouth and put in reserve.
Between August 1813 and February 1814 refitted in a troopship at Plymouth.
November 1813 re-commissioned under command of Cmdr. Charles Sullivan, after her refit was completed sailed for Halifax.
Sullivan was relieved in December 1814 by Cmdr. James Galoway.
31 March 1815 she sailed from Spithead for Canada, the crossing of the North Atlantic was uneventful, but when passing the New Foundland Banks she met large icefields, strong winds and thick fog.
27 April 1815 she entered the St Lawrence and passed 28th Magdalen Island. At the 30th April a course was set to keep her clear from the land, 08.00pm she was in 71 fathoms, and a half hour later during heavy snowfall she struck a rock and grounded hard.
How many men were lost in and later on shore is not know, I have from upwards 40 to 216, which were frozen or drowned. Comdr. Galoway was saved.

(She must be the vessel on the port side of the GUILLIAM TELL the only frigate and with one deck; the other two English Navy vessels were two deckers)

Source: Shipwrecks of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Eras by Grocott. http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk
British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793 –1817. Some other web-sites.
Malta 2006 29c sg?, scott?

GUILLAUME TELL 1796

Built as a 2eRate ship-of-the-line at Toulon for the French Navy. She was designed by Jacques-Noël Sané.
September 1794 keel laid down.
21 October 1795 launched under the name GUILLAUME TELL. (most probably named after the famous marksman from Switzerland William Tell.)
Tonnage ?, dim. 182.6 x 47 x 23.6ft.
Armament 30 – 36pdrs., 32 – 24pdrs., 28 – 12pdrs., 6 – 36 carronades.
Crew 800.
July 1796 completed.

She was one of the French ships under command of Capt. Saulnier and as flagship of Vice Admiral P.C. Villeneuve (1763 – 1806) was she present at the Battle of the Nile on 01 August 1798.
She was not engaged in this battle, and as one of the rear vessels in the French line of warships together with three other French warships escaped undamaged.

She escaped to Malta, which was at that time under French authority.
Malta Post gives: http://www.maltapost.com/page.asp?n=newsdetails&I=5520

The French 84-gun GUILLAUME TELL escaped from the Battle of the Nile to seek shelter in Valetta after the defeat by Admiral Horatio Nelson of the French fleet in Aboukir Bay.
The Maltese insurgents were besieging the French in Valletta and the ships of the British Navy were maintaining a blockade to ensure none of the French warships sailed to France.
GUILLAUME TELL was refitted and attempted to escape during the night of 29-30 March 1800 with some of the garrison’s sick and wounded.
She was engaged in daylight by the 44-gun frigate HMS PENELOPE that fought a delaying action until joined by the 64-gun HMS LION and the 80-gun HMS FOUDROYANT, which dismasted the French vessel, as depicted in this painting by Edwin Galea. She was towed to Syracuse for repairs, and joined the British Fleet as HMS MALTA. (on the stamp she is the vessel in the foreground of the painting seen starboard side).

When she escaped from Malta she was still under command of Capt. Saulnier and had on board Vice Admiral Decrés, she left Valletta during the pitch-black night of 29 March at 23.00, she was not seen by HMS ALEXANDER which was anchored three miles from Fort St. Elmo.
At midnight did HMS PENELOPE see her; which was under command of Capt. Henry Blackwood, who began a running attack on her. The GUILLAUME TELL who tried to escape could only use her stern chasers during this fight.
When daylight came she was attacked by the LION, PENELOPE and FOUDROYANT.
After a most gallant battle she struck her colours and was taken.
From the crew of 919 men, 207 were killed and many wounded under which Capt. Saulnier and Vice Admiral Decrés.

Taken in the Royal Navy as HMS MALTA.
23 November 1800 arrived at Portsmouth for a refit, which was completed on 10 July 1801.
Tonnage given as 2.265 ton (bm), dim. 194.4 x 51.7 x 23.4ft.
Armament: Lower deck 30 – 32pdrs. and 2 – 68pdrs carronades. Upper deck 30 - 24pdrs., quarter deck 18 – 24pdrs. and 8 – 24pdrs carronades, fore-castle 2 – 12pdrs., poop deck 2 – 68pdrs. carronades and 2 – 24pdrs. carronades.
Crew 780.

May 1801 commissioned under command of Capt. Albemarle Bertie.
She received orders to stationed at St. Hellen’s to examine all vessels coming into Portsmouth harbour.
Later was she used in the blockade of Brest, and for a while stationed at Bantry Bay.
After a seriously fire on board, paid off on 04 April 1802 at Plymouth.
March 1803 recommissioned, under command of Capt. Edward Buller.
10 April 1803 she joined the fleet at Cawsand Bay.
June 1803 she sent into Plymouth the American ship LOVINA from New York bound for Amsterdam, loaded with tobacco. She detained the LOVINA in the English Channel.
July 1803 send out together with other ships from the Royal Navy to patrol the waters off the Spanish coast.
Christmas Day 1803 she was running in a storm with hurricane strength, and her prize the LES DEUX AMIS was wrecked in the Catwater near Deadman’s Bay, the prize was loaded with sugar and coffee.

The MALTA returned to Plymouth for a refit after the winter gales.
16 July 1804 she was again moved to Cawsand Bay.
19 December still at Cawsand Bay a strong gale sprung up, and the MALTA had to veer more anchor cable to prevent her drifting, she touched some rocks but was not damaged.
The end of that year she sailed to Ferrol, Spain and returned on the 29th December at Plymouth with on board 60.000 dollars in silver belonging to Spanish merchants.

January 1805 under temporary command of Capt. William Granger off Cadiz, Spain.
She joined Sir Robert Calder squadron and took part in his action against the Spanish and French fleet on 22 July 1805. Two enemy ships were taken. MALTA lost during this action 5 men and had 40 wounded.
Flagship of Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Louis.
August 1806 she captured the French Le PRÉSIDENT (44-guns).
05 January 1807 sailed for the Mediterranean.
1807 Used in the blockade off Cadiz. Command was taken over by Capt. William Shield.
1808 Used in the blockade off Toulon, Capt Shield was relieved by Capt. Robert Otway.
December 1808 decommissioned at Plymouth for repair and a refit.
September 1811 re-commissioned under command of Capt. Charles Paget as flagship for Rear Admiral Sir. Benjamin Hallowell.
08 January 1812 sailed for the Mediterranean.
January 1815 command taken over by Capt. William Fahie.
From November 1815 till January 1816 under repair and fitted out as guardship at Plymouth.
January 1816 command taken over by Capt. Thomas Caulfield.
July 1816 paid off at Plymouth, and put in reserve.
10 November 1831 fitted out as depot ship at Plymouth.
August 1840 broken up at Plymouth.

Source: many websites under which http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/M1.HTM British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793-1817 by Rif Winfield.
Malta 2006 29c sg?, scott?

The other ships depict on this stamp are the:
HMS FOUDROYANT viewtopic.php?f=2&t=16181#!lightbox[gallery]/1/
HMS PENELOPE: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=16176
HMS LION: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=16178

The Uto Ni Yalo-canoe of Fiji

Across the Pacific, the voyaging canoe is said to represent genealogy. Pacific Islanders trace their origins to certain canoes, for each is a sacred and living treasure that connects people to their ancestry. The canoe is origin and possibility, heritage and story, and a poetic, powerful metaphor of planet Earth, reminding us that we are an island of finite resources, floating in the sea of space. As she voyages, the canoe embodies balance, harmony, teamwork, and respect. If one of her hulls is damaged, we take actions to repair it and prevent sinking. So too is our responsibility for the Earth, to care for our home as though the planet is on loan to us from future generations yet to be born… Uto ni Yalo is one of seven double-hull canoe vessels built in 2010. The design is modelled of traditional vessels called vaka moana ‘boat of the sea’. The vessels maiden voyage was in 2011 called Te Mana O Te Moana ‘The Spirit of the Ocean’. The voyage involved many Pacific Island nations and sailed from New Zealand to Hawaii and onto San Diago, United States. The purpose was to advocate for environmental and climate change issues, promote traditional sailing methods and unite pacific communities and reconnect to thesea. The Uto Ni Yalo, which uses large sails to navigate the seas, was part of a fleet of traditional canoes that embarked on a voyage from Cook Islands to Sydney to highlight the threat of climate change in 2014. Much like that epic voyage, the Uto Ni Yalo encountered difficulties with low wind conditions while sailing towards Levuka.But the sailors were prepared for such contingencies. The Fijian canoe is named Uto Ni Yalo, which quite literally translates to ‘Heart of Spirit.’ Is the Uto Ni Yalo a Fijian Drua? It is not if you are talking about its design. The Uto Ni Yalo is a fusion of traditional central Pacific canoe design, utilizing modern boat-building materials and technologies. Together with the other six other canoes, the Uto Ni Yalo was built with the generous support of Okeanos in Auckland at Salthouse Boatbuilders. These newly designed sailing canoes vaka moana [Pacific]/ waka hourua [Maori]) are all constructed of e-glass and foam, using advanced infusion processes. Nevertheless, traditional ingenuity and knowledge remain clearly visible with the twin hulls cunningly connected by wooden beams and lashed only with rope. Each vaka is finished with intricate traditional designs, and carved and painted using colours and insignia representative of each nation. Much effort and detail has gone into creating a truly eco-friendly vaka that harnesses only wind and current to travel. To aid maneuvering in tight modern berthing stations, or to assist in harbor entries, a solar powered system serves as an auxiliary propulsion option. This merging of past and present ideas serves as a useful metaphor for solutions to our planet’s energy and climate change issues. 65с- The Uto Ni Yalo sailing pictured sailing in front of the Sydney Opera House. 1.5$- The Uto Ni Yalo’s historic voyage to San Fransisco.
Fiji 2016;40c,65c,1.5$,10$.
Source:http://okeanos-foundation.org/impacts/. thewellingtonchocolatevoyage.wordpress.com/tag/uto-ni-yalo-trust/. https://fijimarinas.com/uto-ni-yalo-pacific-voyaging/

RAMANUJAN 1929

World Post Day
The beginning of post offices in Sri Lanka goes back to the Dutch period in 1787. The post office system which commenced with five post offices in the coastal areas has to day evolved into a system consisting of 641 post offices and 3681 Sub Post Offices.
Letters, parcels and other postal items received by a Post Office are transported to their respective destinations by Postmen, motor vehicles, aero planes and trains.
In the past postal items were transported from one Post Office to another Post Office and also to household residents through Postmen who walked on foot. Subsequently horse carriages were used for that purpose. In Asia it was in Sri Lanka where horse carriages were used for the first time for mail transport.
Horse carriages, motor vehicles, aero planes and trains were used for delivery of mail without delay.
Postal transport by train was started in 1865.That was from Colombo to Ambepussa. Between Ambepussa and Kandy mail was transported using horse carriages and with the commencement of train services between Ambepussa and Kandy in 1867, postal items were transported from Colombo to Kandy by train.
For the first time a mobile post office was started on April 11, 1892 using passenger transport railway compartments where it was possible to sort out letters there itself. This Travelling Post Office facility which was initiated from the hill country was subsequently expanded to other areas such as the southern, north-western, eastern and the northern provinces as well. Today the Travelling Post Offices are in operation as those of Colombo – Badulla, Colombo – Galle and Colombo – Jaffna.
Train service was mainly used for the interior transport of mail and the railway line from Medavachchiya to Thalaimannar can be considered as a unique travelling postal transport route of this service. Postal goods transported to Thalaimannar via Medavachchiya from Colombo were transported by it up to Madras in India. Postal goods brought from Colombo to Thalaimannar via Medavachchiya were unloaded at the Thalaimannar Naval Dockyard. Thereafter, passengers and postal goods were transported by sea from Thalaimannar to Danushkodi in India by ships belonging to the British – India Stem Navigation Company (BISNC) which came from Danushkodi.
Postal goods of Sri Lanka which were unloaded at Danushkodi were transported from there to Madras by the Indian train which used to call at that port. This Indo – Sri Lanka Traveling Post Office commenced on March 01, 1914 was used for the transport of passengers and postal goods between the two countries.

http://www.stamps.gov.lk/929.php

The Boat Mail Train aka the Indo-Ceylon Express
In the 1950s, there was much traffic between India and Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) by land and sea. The Boat Mail train, aka the Indo-Ceylon Express plied between Chennai (then Madras) and Dhanushkodi on the Bay of Bengal. It took almost 19 hours to complete the journey of 675 kilometers.
After the Boat Mail train reached Dhanushkodi Pier at 15:05 hours in the afternoon, the passengers after alighting from the train crossed the Palk Strait using the steamer ferry service from Dhanushkodi Pier to Talaimannar Pier in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The ferry steamer used to leave the Indian shore soon after 16:00 hours. It took about 3½ hours for the crossing.
The era of the Boat Mail came to an end after a cyclonic storm with high-speed winds, and high tidal waves struck South India and northern Ceylon between December 22 and 25, 1964. The entire town of Dhanushkodi was completely submerged with heavy casualties. The railway line running from Pamban Station to Dhanushkodi Pier was destroyed, and a passenger train with over 100 passengers drowned in the sea.
Years later, the name of the train changed from Indo-Ceylon Express to Rameswaram Express.
https://tvaraj.com/tag/chennai/page/2/

After some searching I found that the ferry used in 1955 between Talaimannar in Ceylon and Rameswarum in India was the RAMANUJAN, and she is depict on the stamp alongside the pier in Talaimannar.

She was built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard No 859m by D&W Henderson & Co., at the Meadowside yard, Glasgow for the South India Railway Co. Ltd., Glasgow.
10 June 1929 launched as the IRWIN.
Tonnage 970 grt, 377 nrt, dim, 76.2 x 11.61 x 3.47m.
Powered by two steam turbines manufactured by Yarrow & Co. Ltd., Glasgow, 353 nhp. Speed 10 knots.
02 September 1929 completed.

1948 Transferred to the Southern Railway, Madras, India not renamed.
1965 Transferred to the Shipping Corp. of India Ltd., Madras not renamed.
1972 Renamed by the company in RAMANUJAN.
09 June 1987 work commenced scrapping by Shri Ram Shipbreakers in Bombay, India.

Source http://www.miramarshipindex.nz http://www.clydeships.co.uk/view.php?of ... ssel=IRWIN
Sri Lanka 2017 15.00P sg?, scott? and a miniature sheet.

.

The galleries of Peter the Great in the battle for the Azov

During the preparation of the first Azov campaign in the winter of 1695, the galleys built in the Preobrazhensky (3 cannon galley Principupium and other galleys) in disassembled form were delivered to Voronezh, where they assembled and descended to the water. In 1695 in the Netherlands was ordered 32 rowing galleries, which was intended for walking along the Volga and the Caspian Sea. The gallery was delivered to Russia in parts. Together with her came a master who was supposed to help collect her by model. By this moment, important political events took place. The failed first Azov campaign showed that it is necessary to build a navy to capture Azov. The place of its construction was the village of Preobrazhenskoe. Therefore, the galley arrived from Holland began to be used as a model for the construction of the galleys of the first regular navy of Russia. By February 1696, parts of 26 galleys were built from the raw frozen forest. By April 1696 in Voronezh was built the first regular naval fleet of Russia. In addition to 23 galleys there were 2 ships, 4 fire-ships. May 3, 1696 from Voronezh to Azov went a detachment of 8 galleys at the head of Peter I, who was on the galley "Principium". During this campaign, the king made the first charter of the Russian navy - "Decree on galleys." In this document, he established rules for the transmission of signals sent by the squadron commander, as well as requirements for the captains. The constructed galleys differed little from the galleys of their time. Their length was from 125 to 160 feet, and width - from 18 to-36 feet. On the galleys were two masts - the grotto and the foc. If there was a need, they were removed. Latin sails had two sets - large and small, which were used depending on the strength of the wind. Among 6 four-armed anchors, 2 were located on the nose, 2 at the stern and 2 were spare. The artillery was on the nose and consisted of four 8-pound and one 36-pound guns. The artist's painting depicted on the stamp has the name: "Russian galley during the siege and capture of Azov in the Ottoman Empire (1696)." But the artist was mistaken, since the galleys of Azov were 2 masts. The 3-masted gallery of the Petrine era is the 25-can of the Dvina, built by the Italian ship master Francesco Diponti in the Venetian Manira in St. Petersburg in 1721. Its length was about 48.5 m, the width with the posters was 9.6 m, the oars had a length of 13.2 m and a mass of about 94 kg; Each row paddles six people. The armament of the Dvina consisted of one 24-pounder, two 12-pounder cannons and twelve 3-pound basses. But she did not participate in the siege of Azov.
Burundi 2017; 660f.
Source: http: //ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_Voronezh_ (1682-1725). https://otvet.mail.ru/question/64385578
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